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Research Flavorings in Tobacco Products Induce Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
While this is not a cannabis related article, it may pertain to some of our vaporists here that use e-juice or flavorings...

Flavorings in Tobacco Products Induce Endothelial Cell Dysfunction


Jessica L. Fetterman, Robert M. Weisbrod, Bihua Feng, Reena Bastin, Shawn T. Tuttle, Monica Holbrook, Gregory Baker, Rose Marie Robertson, Daniel J. Conklin, Aruni Bhatnagar, Naomi M. Hamburg

Published By:
American Heart Association, Inc.

Print ISSN:
1079-5642

Online ISSN:
1524-4636

History:

  • Received April 9, 2018
  • Accepted May 1, 2018
  • Originally published June 14, 2018.
Abstract
Objective—Use of alternative tobacco products including electronic cigarettes is rapidly rising. The wide variety of flavored tobacco products available is of great appeal to smokers and youth. The flavorings added to tobacco products have been deemed safe for ingestion, but the cardiovascular health effects are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 9 flavors on vascular endothelial cell function.

Approach and Results—Freshly isolated endothelial cells from participants who use nonmenthol- or menthol-flavored tobacco cigarettes showed impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production compared with endothelial cells from nonsmoking participants. Treatment of endothelial cells isolated from nonsmoking participants with either menthol (0.01 mmol/L) or eugenol (0.01 mmol/L) decreased A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production. To further evaluate the effects of flavoring compounds on endothelial cell phenotype, commercially available human aortic endothelial cells were incubated with vanillin, menthol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, dimethylpyrazine, diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, eucalyptol, and acetylpyrazine (0.1–100 mmol/L) for 90 minutes. Cell death, reactive oxygen species production, expression of the proinflammatory marker IL-6 (interleukin-6), and nitric oxide production were measured. Cell death and reactive oxygen species production were induced only at high concentrations unlikely to be achieved in vivo. Lower concentrations of selected flavors (vanillin, menthol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and acetylpyridine) induced both inflammation and impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production consistent with endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusions—Our data suggest that short-term exposure of endothelial cells to flavoring compounds used in tobacco products have adverse effects on endothelial cell phenotype that may have relevance to cardiovascular toxicity.

Supplemental Data for: Flavorings in Tobacco Products Induce Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

 

Baron23

Well-Known Member
While this is not a cannabis related article, it may pertain to some of our vaporists here that use e-juice or flavorings...

Flavorings in Tobacco Products Induce Endothelial Cell Dysfunction


Jessica L. Fetterman, Robert M. Weisbrod, Bihua Feng, Reena Bastin, Shawn T. Tuttle, Monica Holbrook, Gregory Baker, Rose Marie Robertson, Daniel J. Conklin, Aruni Bhatnagar, Naomi M. Hamburg

Published By:
American Heart Association, Inc.

Print ISSN:
1079-5642

Online ISSN:
1524-4636

History:

  • Received April 9, 2018
  • Accepted May 1, 2018
  • Originally published June 14, 2018.
Abstract
Objective—Use of alternative tobacco products including electronic cigarettes is rapidly rising. The wide variety of flavored tobacco products available is of great appeal to smokers and youth. The flavorings added to tobacco products have been deemed safe for ingestion, but the cardiovascular health effects are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 9 flavors on vascular endothelial cell function.

Approach and Results—Freshly isolated endothelial cells from participants who use nonmenthol- or menthol-flavored tobacco cigarettes showed impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production compared with endothelial cells from nonsmoking participants. Treatment of endothelial cells isolated from nonsmoking participants with either menthol (0.01 mmol/L) or eugenol (0.01 mmol/L) decreased A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production. To further evaluate the effects of flavoring compounds on endothelial cell phenotype, commercially available human aortic endothelial cells were incubated with vanillin, menthol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, dimethylpyrazine, diacetyl, isoamyl acetate, eucalyptol, and acetylpyrazine (0.1–100 mmol/L) for 90 minutes. Cell death, reactive oxygen species production, expression of the proinflammatory marker IL-6 (interleukin-6), and nitric oxide production were measured. Cell death and reactive oxygen species production were induced only at high concentrations unlikely to be achieved in vivo. Lower concentrations of selected flavors (vanillin, menthol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and acetylpyridine) induced both inflammation and impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production consistent with endothelial dysfunction.

Conclusions—Our data suggest that short-term exposure of endothelial cells to flavoring compounds used in tobacco products have adverse effects on endothelial cell phenotype that may have relevance to cardiovascular toxicity.

Supplemental Data for: Flavorings in Tobacco Products Induce Endothelial Cell Dysfunction
Yeah, I ain't vaping any of that stuff and object strenuously to artificially flavored MJ carts and the like.
 

Disrupt

Well-Known Member
Much of the study is focused on menthol in cigarette smoke, which has been extensively studied and doesn't appear to be applicable to cannabis use.

While adding to the growing body of evidence on the health effects of flavors, the relevance of the method used has limitations and the flavors investigated are ones that have already been identified as presenting concerns. Essentially, the researchers added the flavors to the culture medium in which a cell line representing one cell-type was growing. This is generally regarded as a preliminary screening step preceding studies that more accurately model inhalation exposure.

IMO, flavors are a serious health concern about which very little is known. Hundreds of distinct flavors are used in e-liquids, with multiple flavor constituents combined in each. Many more than nine of these could have health effects, especially when heated and inhaled. Some of these concerns are known, others suspected, and still others have not been studied at all.

If you're in the US and this concerns you, the FDA is currently taking comments on a proposal to establish standards for flavors in tobacco products. Participate in your government: https://www.federalregister.gov/doc...655/regulation-of-flavors-in-tobacco-products.
 

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