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Meds Inflammation

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Cannabis for Inflammation, Why Does Is Work So Well?
Medical Marijuana For Inflammation and Swelling Works Wonders


Inflammation is the root cause of dozens of chronic illnesses that plague us today. Inflammation occurs when the immune system is compromised, and leads to organ, joint, and tissue damage in many parts of the body.

Living a lifestyle that prevents inflammation is necessary in preventing chronic illnesses. This means eating a proper diet high in nutrients and inflammation-fighting foods, getting enough rest as well as regular exercise. Once you do have inflammation, it’s important to address it immediately otherwise it can lead to more serious conditions. Most people actually aren’t aware that inflammation affects almost every aspect of your health: arthritis, celiac disease, cancer, asthma, fibromyalgia, heart disease, diabetes, thyroid problems, and ADD just to name a few. Inflammation can be happening right now in your body, but you won’t know it because it takes years for it to be clinically significant, or until it manifests through symptoms of another disease.

How Does Cannabis Treat Inflammation?

Numerous studies have proven that cannabis is effective in treating inflammation as well as addressing the accompanying pain. This is because of the presence of its 2 major cannabinoids, THC and CBD.




Both THC and CBD are effective in reducing inflammation that is linked to several diseases. But another compound found in cannabis called the beta-carophyllene also affects the CB2 receptor. A 2008 study analyzing mice who had swollen paws and were given oral doses of beta-carophyllene showed a 70% decrease in inflammation. The mice without CB2 receptors didn’t see any improvement.

A study published by the US National Library of Medicine found that cannabinoids control the response of the immune system and works in suppressing inflammatory responses. The human endocannabinoid system has 2 receptors: CB1, which is located in the central nervous system, is responsible for psychoactive effects; and CB2, which is found in the tissues and is responsible for inhibiting inflammation.






Cannabis is also useful in keeping c-reactive protein levels down; high levels of this protein can lead to fatal heart disease. A study published in the Drug and Alcohol Dependence Journal revealed that people who smoked cannabis had lower levels of c-reactive protein than those who didn’t smoke. Another study showed that CBD was effective in blocking the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and was also beneficial in providing relief for pain caused by joint swelling. It’s already well known that cannabis is effective in treating chronic pain, which is a side effect of inflammation.

While we now know that THC and CBD work in treating and preventing inflammation, they both work in the body in different ways. Both cannabinoids have demonstrated efficacy in decreasing both the release and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and also works to decrease the activation of LPS-induced STAT 1 transcription factor, which contributes to some inflammatory processes. However scientists find that CBD is much more potent in addressing inflammation, and for this reason high CBD strains are recommended particularly for those who suffer from extreme inflammation. CBD actually supports the concentration of endogenous cannabinoids which gives the body the ability to self-heal and ward off disease.




Even if you’re a recreational smoker, you can still benefit from the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis. Some people take aspirin to reduce their risk of illness and cancer, although it has serious side effects such as headaches, heartburn, upset stomach or even more serious side effects such as coughing up blood, black stools, swelling, and fever. Cannabis can give you all these medicinal benefits and more without ANY side effects.

Many people also prefer to use topicals to help address inflammation. Being the largest organ, the skin is an effective way of taking in the medicinal and anti-inflammatory benefits of cannabis, also while preventing skin inflammation.

 
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momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Pot Smokers Show Less Inflammation

People who smoke marijuana may have lower levels of inflammation compared with people who have never smoked it, according to new research on one marker of inflammation.

In the study, researchers examined data from more than 9,000 people on their history of marijuana use and their levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), one marker of inflammation that is frequently linked with people's risk of heart disease.

About 40 percent of the people in the study said they had never smoked marijuana, while 48 percent reported having smoked the drug at least once in their lifetimes, but not in the past 30 days. About 12 percent (1115) said they smoked marijuana recently, or at least once in the past 30 days. The researchers found that the people who smoked in the last month had lower CRP levels than those who had never smoked the drug.


The new evidence "points toward possible anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis smoking," the authors wrote in the study, published online Nov. 28 in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

However, the researchers remain cautious about the possible implications of their findings, as previous research on CRP levels and marijuana use in people has been scarce and the results of other studies have been inconsistent. [11 Odd Facts About Marijuana]

"Replication studies always are very important, and no firm conclusions can be drawn until evidence starts to converge," study author Omayma Alshaarawy, a postdoctoral researcher in epidemiology at Michigan State University, told Live Science.

The new study was based on data gathered from people ages 20 to 59 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that was collected between 2005 and 2010.

The findings come after a previous study of about 8,000 people, also ages 20 to 59, which yielded more-mixed results. The previous study found — in line with the idea that marijuana may lower inflammation — that people who had smoked marijuana in the past had lower average CRP levels than those who had never used the drug. It also found that former and current marijuana smokers were less likely to have CRP levels that would be considered "elevated" than people who had never used the drug.

However, another finding from that same study cast doubt on the notion that pot lowers inflammation, because current marijuana smokers did not have lower CRP levels than those who had never used the drug. The findings were based on NHANES data collected between 1988 and 1994, and published in 2012 in the journal BMJ Open.

And in another study of 1,420 young people (whose average age was 14), published in 2013 in the journal Drug and Alcohol Dependence, researchers found that marijuana use was actually linked to higher CRP levels.

That study, however, "was based on a relatively small sample in the Great Smoky Mountains, with relatively large margins of error," Alshaarawy said.

In contrast, the new study "is based on quite large national samples with much smaller margins of error," she said. "But there still is reason to postpone drawing firm conclusions until more research has been completed."

The difference in the results of the new study and the study of the young people may have something to do with differences in the participants' ages, said Émilie Jouanjus, a faculty member and marijuana researcher at the Toulouse University Hospital in France, who was not involved in any of the CRP studies.

Jouanjus called the new study "interesting," saying that it adds to scientific knowledge in the field of marijuana use.

The mechanism that might underlie a link between lower CRP levels and smoking marijuana is not clear. However, based on previous research, Alshaarawy and her colleagues speculated that marijuana's activation of cannabinoid-2 receptors could mediate the drug's potential anti-inflammatory effects.

It also remains unknown how the drug may influence people's risk of heart disease, which has long been linked with elevated CRP levels.

"CRP is a marker of inflammation and thus constitutes a cardiovascular risk factor," Jouanjus said."This implies that lower CRP levels should [theoretically] be linked to a lower risk of heart problems."

At the same time, some reports have linked heart problems, including fatal problems, to marijuana use, particularly among young people.

"Indeed, the cardiovascular complications reported in the scientific literature mainly concern young marijuana users with apparently no cardiovascular risk factor," Jouanjus said.

In a September 2014 interview with Live Science, Dr. Sripal Bangalore, an associate professor and interventional cardiologist at the Department of Medicine of NYU Langone Medical Center, used term "the pot heart" to describe this phenomenon.

However, the reports that link marijuana use with heart problems "offer little more than anecdotal evidence at this point," Alshaarawy said.

Jouanjus offered a possible explanation of this seemingly conflicting information on marijuana's potential effects on health. She said there is indeed evidence that compounds in marijuana have anti-inflammatory properties that are mediated by the activation of type 2 cannabinoid receptors. However, the compounds also target other receptors and activate pathways that may play a role in triggering cardiovascular diseases, she said.

 

herbivore21

Well-Known Member
This article is really just confirming what was already known. A number of cannabinoids have been observed to have anti-inflammatory action in the body. Among these are THC, CBD, Beta Caryophyllene (this is strictly speaking a cannabinoid, as it activates the CB2 receptor), CBC and more!
 

Diggy Smalls

Well-Known Member
Vaporizing cannabis does bring down my swelling after a long day of running around playing with little kids. My right ankle and foot can get very tender and swollen. It doesn't take long to start feeling the general relief and then before I know it I can walk again. Lol seriously though, it really does bring down the inflammation some and helps with the pain from it. Recently my eye was filling up with red blood cells and I carried extra hard lol
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
My right ankle and foot can get very tender and swollen. It doesn't take long to start feeling the general relief and then before I know it I can walk again
I broke my ankle in 2003 and it was never repaired. It can swell up and make walking difficult. I find many days a series of dabs, sitting with my foot up, and then carrying on; repetitively throughout the day... Yup. Blazing on. :torching:

Beats narcotics. And I can function somewhat normally. :smile:
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Cannabidiolic Acid (CBDA): The Raw Cannabinoid That Fights Inflammation

Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is a chemical compound found in the resin glands (trichomes) of raw cannabis plants. In this case, raw means unheated and uncured. Basically, raw cannabis is fresh flower and leaves trimmed directly from the plant. CBDA is the precursor to the more widely known molecule,

CBDA is the precursor to the more widely known molecule, cannabidiol (CBD). In fresh cannabis, it is estimated that 95 percent of the cannabinoid exists as THCA and only 5 percent as CBD.

When CBDA is aged and heated, it breaks down from its acid form and into CBD. The process of converting CBDA to CBD is called decarboxylation or decarbing. With heat and time, the acid group of the molecule degrades and what is left is what many refer to as “activated” CBD.

CBDA is most abundant in specific types of cannabis plants. The largest quantities of CBDA are found in high-CBD strains. Unlike cannabis that causes a psychoactive high, which contains high levels of another cannabinoid called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), strains high in CBD can be difficult to come by.

Fortunately, most major seed breeders and many cannabis access points now offer at least one or two CBD varieties. When kept raw, these plants will be brimming with CBDA. CBDA can also be extracted from certain varieties of cannabis that are classified as hemp.

Neither CBD nor CBDA causes a psychoactive high. Little is known about CBDA, but it is known that CBD works its magic by relieving body pain, easing anxiety, and promoting positive mood. In general, CBD is considered the

In general, CBD is considered the active compound and CBDA is thought to be inactive. However, research conducted in the past five years suggests that CBDA might not be as useless as was expected.

What are the benefits of CBDA?

While raw cannabis extracts are available through a handful of retailers, most raw cannabis enthusiasts get their daily dose of CBDA through simply eating and drinking the cannabis plant. Cannabis leaves can be used in salads, as a garnish, or in smoothies and juices like just about any other nutrient-rich leafy green.

Patients with more advanced conditions often like to blend or juice fresh cannabis buds, which contain the greatest concentration of cannabinoid acids. However, just about anyone can reap the benefits of adding this friendly, raw green vegetable into their diets.

CBDA is thought to be:


What conditions respond to CBDA?

Many conditions that respond well to CBD may also respond to CBDA. Though, CBDA is broken down and used by the body differently than its “activated” counterpart. CBDA also may not be as strong as CBD, which is why the dosages of CBDA are typically much higher than CBD.

By some arguments, activated CBD is more bioavailable than CBDA. Though, there is a lot to be said for consuming the stuff as a nutritional product in a blended drink or juice.

Quality research on CBDA alone is scarce. Most research focuses on the effects of CBD, not the acid form of the molecule. Still, some scientists are looking into the therapeutic potential of this cannabinoid.

Here’s what some of the early research has to say about CBDA:

1. Nausea and vomiting

Have a queasy stomach? Some raw cannabis juice might help. A 2012 study tested the anti-vomiting potential of CBDA in rats. In fact, the study found that CBDA was more effective than activated CBD in easing nausea and vomiting in the rodents. The cannabinoid seemed to activate a special type of cell receptor in rodents’ brainstem.

The receptor is called the 5-HT1A receptor, and it is one of several serotonin receptors found on the surface of cells in humans and animals. While the neurotransmitter serotonin is more famous for its role in depression, it may also have a part to play in nausea and vomiting.

The study showed that activation of this cell receptor spiked after treatment with CBDA, which may be a reason why the acid was so effective at stopping vomiting and gagging in rats.

2. Anti-cancer

In 2012, laboratory researchers discovered that CBDA showed a positive anti-cancer effect in breast cancer. The research was conducted on cells cultured outside of the body, which means that this finding is considered fairly low-quality evidence.

However, repeated experiments in animals and cell lines have found that various cannabis compounds have potent anti-cancer potential.

The study that examined CBDA found that the acid successfully prevented cell migration in an aggressive type of breast cancer. Simply stated, CBDA treatment prevented the breast cancer cells from growing and dividing, a key factor in a successful cancer treatment.

Another cell line study published in 2014 found that, again, CBDA showed anti-cancer potential. Similar to the study above, the cannabinoid seemed to slow down metastasis, which is when cancer cells migrate to another part of the body. 90 percent of metastatic breast cancers are fatal.

This early research is promising, but it is far too soon to tell what effect CBDA has on cancer and whether or not it is beneficial to human bodies. While the limited evidence thus far is suggestive, it is far from conclusive.

3. Anxiety and psychotic disorders

There have been no high-quality studies on CBDA for the treatment of anxiety and psychotic disorders. However, GW Pharmaceuticals does have a patent on CBDA as an adjunct treatment for psychotic disorders.

A patent means that there is enough preclinical evidence to warrant a further exploration of a pharmaceutical drug. The patent includes CBDA in combination with other cannabinoids, such as activated CBD, THCV, CBC, and CBG. The patent was filed in 2011 in partnership with Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.

4. Arthritis and inflammatory conditions

Thus far, there have been no human or animal studies that examine CBDA as a treatment for arthritis or inflammatory conditions. However, laboratory research in cell cultures has discovered that the cannabinoid acid seems to work in some remarkably similar ways to common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
NSAIDS are common anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and aspirin. Arthritis patients tend to take a whole lot of these drugs, which can come with serious side effects. NSAIDS have been linked to increasing risk of stomach ulcers, kidney damage, high blood pressure, headaches, and the ability to bleed easier.

The researchers speculated that CBDA has these effects because of the way it interacts with an enzyme called COX-2. COX-2 is a primary target site for anti-inflammatory drugs. Interestingly, the researchers found that CBDA seemed to effect this enzyme while other cannabinoids, like psychoactive THC, did not.

Already, green juicing is thought to be highly beneficial for those with arthritis and inflammatory conditions. If this preclinical research proves its weight in animal and human trials, this non-psychoactive vegetable may prove to be a potent natural pain reliever, without the risk of harmful side effects like ulcer and kidney problems.

Strains high in CBDA

When kept raw, the strains listed below are high in CBDA. When heated, they will be high in activated CBD. Listed next to each strain is the average ratio of CBD to THC in each variety.

Raw cannabis does not contain THC. Rather, it contains tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA), the acid form of the world’s most popular psychoactive. In its raw form, THCA does not produce a psychoactive high.

Consumers are safe to eat and drink conclusions made from raw THC strains without any risk of a mind-altering experience whatsoever. Though, you’re likely to find yourself in a good mood after a little cannabis juice.

Here are some of the most popular high-CBD strains:


For more information on cannabis strains, check out HERB’s Strain Database.

 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
9 Inflammatory Diseases Linked To Impaired Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor

The cannabinoid CB2 receptor is critical for limiting inflammation. Your risk of many immune diseases may be heightened if you have this genetic variant.


The clinical endocannabinoid deficiency hypothesis states that impairments in the endocannabinoid system (ECS) are responsible for a multitude of medical conditions. This could involve reduced levels of endocannabinoids, but also impaired receptor signaling.

The cannabinoid CB2 receptor is found on immune cells (although not exclusively) and its expression can increase rapidly during inflammation. This response appears to limit the extent of immune cell activation. But there are many pro- and anti-inflammatory signals…how do we know that the CB2 receptor has any real relevance in inflammatory diseases?

One way to examine this hypothesis is to study people who have genetic polymorphisms that cause reduced receptor expression or signaling. What luck! The CB2 receptor has a very common polymorphism that does this (well lucky for scientists, not so much for the patients).


Endocannabinoids do not inhibit immune cell proliferation as well if they have CB2 GG/GG (R/R) genotype


It is called the Q63R polymorphism, since it causes the 63rd amino acid to change from a glutamine (Q) to an arginine (R). First reported in 2005, they found that endocannabinoids did not inhibit proliferation of immune cells nearly as much when they had the R version. Subsequent experiments showed that the R version had impaired signal transduction, particularly activation of ERK, an important signaling molecule in immune cells.

So how does having this impaired version of the CB2 receptor affect your risk of developing various immune-mediated diseases? What does this mean for the clinical endocannabinoid deficiency hypothesis? Read on to find out!

[Psst: EndoCanna Health will have a report on this polymorphism with their genetic test.]





1. Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease of the joints which you may be at higher risk of developing if you have an R allele. In a Lebanese study, having one R allele conferred a 3.9-fold higher risk and two R alleles conferred a 10.8-fold higher risk. Increased risk was also found in a 2005 pilot study of Caucasians, but the numbers were too small for adequate statistical analysis.

The childhood form of this disease, called juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), also showed an increased risk to R carriers. The risk was 2.5-fold higher for the RR genotype. On top of this, RR genotype also doubled the risk of developing JIA before age 5 and increased the rate of disease relapse.



2. Celiac Disease

Celiac disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small bowel that occurs with the ingestion of gluten, found in several grains products. An association was found between Q63R and celiac disease, where having an RR genotype increased the risk of celiac disease by 6.1-fold relative to the QQ genotype.



3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. There are two main types, called Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

In an adult study, no relationship with Q63R was found for IBD. However, in a study of childhood IBD, the RR genotype confered a 1.8-fold higher risk for developing IBD, including both Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis. Patients with the RR genotype also had more severe IBD activity at diagnosis and earlier clinical relapse after treatment.




Steatohepatitis. Fat accumulation seen as white droplets. [Wikipedia]

4. Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Thrombocytopenia is when you have low platelet counts, which reduces your clotting ability. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease that causes this. Three separate studies have looked at the contribution of Q63R to childhood ITP and all had consistent results. Having an RR genotype doubles the risk for developing ITP, and increases the risk of the chronic form by 2.3 to 2.9-fold.



5. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver diseases common in obesity. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a more severe inflammatory form of NAFLD that can lead to cirrhosis. In obese children with NAFLD, R carriers were 5.3-fold more likely to develop NASH relative to subjects with the QQ genotype.



6. Viral Infections

The CB2 receptor can be a double-edged sword when it comes to viral infections.

On one hand, CB2 activation inhibits immune cells, which can impair your ability to fight off a virus. For example, children with one type of acute respiratory tract infection were 2.1-fold more likely to develop a severe infection if they were a Q carrier.

On the other hand, too much immune cell activation can lead to damaging inflammation. For example, patients with a chronic HCV/HIV co-infection and an RR genotype were 2.9-fold more likely to have moderate-to-severe inflammatory liver damage relative to Q carriers.




MS lesion showing demyelination and brown infiltrating immune cells [Wikipedia]


7. Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the myelin sheath of CNS neurons. Possible increased risk of developing MS with the Q63R polymorphism was found in a 2005 pilot study. Although the numbers were small, it was more common for MS patients to be a R carrier than healthy controls. Confirmation in future studies is necessary.



8. Lupus Erythematosus

Lupus is an autoimmune disease that can affect various bodily organs. A very small 2005 pilot study showed that out of 4 lupus patients, 3 were of the RR genotype. Although not statistically powered, this 75% rate of the RR genotype was much higher than the 32% found in control subjects. Confirmation in future studies is necessary.



9. Myasthenia Gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that affects the connection between the nerves and muscles, leading to muscular weakness. A very small 2005 pilot study showed that out of 6 myasthenia gravis patients, 5 were of the RR genotype. Although not statistically powered, this 83% rate of the RR genotype was much higher than the 32% found in control subjects. Confirmation in future studies is necessary.



Final note: As you can see from this list, many of the major inflammatory/autoimmune diseases have shown a link to the genetics of the CB2 receptor. I would not be surprised if even more are discovered soon. This is clearly one of the important regulators that can determine your risk for immune-mediated diseases.

If you have an impaired version of the CB2 receptor, it can be argued that you have a “clinical endocannabinoid deficiency” since your endocannabinoid system is not functioning optimally to limit inflammation. There are other polymorphisms (for example, in the endocannabinoid-degrading FAAH enzyme) that may contribute to this as well.

 

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