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Meds Terpenes

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
What are cannabis terpenes?

Terpenes are as unfamiliar as they are pivotal to cannabis lovers, since they determine the plant’s aromatic fragrance. They are what give Cheese its signature old cheese smell and Dinamed CBD its citrus aroma. However, these compounds have been pushed into the background overshadowed by cannabinoids – mainly THC and more recently CBD – and their effects. Then why not explore the potential of these compounds that can even be found separately in the market? What are terpenes and what properties do they have? Let’s find out!

16/05/17
Out of the many chemical compounds present in cannabis, some 140 belong to this group of organic hydrocarbons known as “terpenes”. Terpenes are volatile molecules that evaporate easily and reach the nose helping us identify the vegetable we are looking at. In fact, terpenes are not exclusive to marijuana, but they are present in many other plant species. These compounds, which account for cannabis aroma, have most likely played a major role in mankind’s strain selection and cannabis domestication, as the aroma is very much taken into account in breeding.


What are terpenes?
Terpenes are organic compounds made up of carbon atoms and hydrogen that consist of repeating units of a 5-carbon molecule known as isoprene. According to the number of repetitions (isoprene units), they are classified in different groups, and so cannabis has:

  • Monoterpenes: made up of 2 isoprene units, that is 10 carbon atoms. The main monoterpenes present is cannabis are limonene, myrcene, pinene, terpinolene and linalool.
  • Sesquiterpenes: made up of 15 carbon atoms.
  • Triterpenes: made up of 30 carbon atoms, they are mainly found in cannabis roots, fibres and seeds.
The terpenes found in the chemical composition of cannabis are synthesized in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes and its production is increased with light exposure. Just us cannabinoids, they are mainly found in resin.

What are the functions of terpenes in cannabis plants?
These fragrant compounds are found in higher concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers and play a major role in protecting the plant from bacteria, fungus, insects and other environmental stresses.

The number of terpenes and their composition varies according to the genetics of each plant and to the growing conditions. As we have just explained, these aromatic compounds are used by plants to repel predators but also to attract pollinating insects. There are several factors that can affect their production: the weather, the maturing period, the nutrients, the soil and even the time of day of harvest.

Even if each plant has its own unique terpene profile, the smell of the plants of the same variety tends to be similar, which is helpful when it comes to identifying the strain. This is because the terpene combination in the individuals of a same genetics is very similar, and so we can tell a Cheese from a Critical +or an Original Amnesia through smell.


Terpenes as precursors of cannabinoids
Terpenes are believed to be involved in cannabinoid production, as these are made up of terpene blocks and phenol groups. In standard growing conditions, the terpene and the cannabinoid levels have been found to be correlated, which could be explained by the fact that both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are synthesized in the same glandular trichomes as cannabinoids.

How is terpene oil (aka cannabis essential oil) extracted?
Cannabis essential oil can be extracted via steam distillation, a simple and traditional process in which the steam passes through the plant material (marijuana) taking the oil with it. Contrary to cannabinoids, terpenes are water-soluble, this is why this method ensures that only terpenes – and not cannabinoids – are extracted. As a result, the obtained essential oil has no psychoactive effect whatsoever.

The process is simple: you just have to place the cannabis together with some water in an R. B. flask and heat it up so that the water turns into steam. This way, the terpenes are transferred to a second flask through a glass outlet along with the steam, were it is refrigerated and turned back into water. Once in liquid state, the essential oil containing the terpenes floats on top of the water and can be easily separated.


What are the applications of terpene essential oil?
With the above described process, it is possible to extract the terpenes of all the cannabis strains known to date. Can you imagine having the flavour and aroma of an OG Kush in the palm of your hand? Or opening a bottle and being carried away by the powerful fragrance of a Cheese? Companies such as Terpalchemi are already extracting the aromatic essential oil of cannabis and marketing it in several countries around the world.

These extracts are delicacies that are sold in small quantities, as huge amounts of cannabis are necessary in order to produce a tiny amount of oil. Here are some of its applications:


  • Aromatherapy: the oil can be added to creams, lotions and massage oils.
  • Enjoying the aromas of cannabis without its psychoactive effects by adding the oil to cigarettes.
  • Dabs: when cannabis extractions are performed, some terpenes may be lost in the process, and along with them, the taste of cannabis. Well, this type of oil can be the perfect solution in such cases.
And the list doesn’t end here. With the FDA and other agencies having classified it as a safe substance and producing no psychoactive effects, the possibilities are endless.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
FROM GREAT SMELL TO… MEDICAL BENEFITS? THE TRUTH ABOUT TERPENES

A new bar in Downtown Los Angeles is making cocktails spiked with terpenes that are also found in cannabis. There’s nothing wrong with adding an extra terp-kick to your drink, but advertising the terpene’s cancer benefits is a whole separate ball game. Is it any help that this new spot is called Prank Bar?

Prank Bar makes cocktails, such as the “Mon Frere,” a mix of Plymouth Gin Cocchi Americano, limonene terpenes and Regan’s Orange Bitter (I’m no mixologist, but isn’t it redundant to add limonene to a drink that already has orange bitters?), and their limonene-packed “Anti-Inflammatory” ambrosia. These drinks probably carry a powerful aroma, but don’t expect them to cure you of depression or cancer.

This whole terpene craze seemingly started with a review published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2011, titled, “Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.” Written by Ethan Russo, a genuine pioneer in the field of cannabis science, this paper made quite a splash in the cannabis industry. After legalization progressed and labs popped up to analyze legal cannabis products for potency—and essential oil content—the terpene obsession really picked up.

Looking at data from different cannabis samples and trying to observe differences in terpene content between strains, some labs began making unsubstantiated claims regarding terpenes.

Indeed, the claim that myrcene, the main terpene in cannabis, somehow increases THC delivery to the brain is based on absolutely nothing, sorry folks. Nevertheless, connoisseurs began to demand higher terpene contents for the flavor, the “medical benefits” and this popular idea that terpenes modulate the effect of cannabinoids in the brain and are responsible for the perceived subjective effects of different strains.

Differences in cannabinoid content is a much more likely scenario for explaining the diverse effects of different cannabis strains—due to the proven and measurable effects these have on the brain.

However, the medical research that Russo used in his famous “entourage effect review is not hearsay from cannabis industry herbalists; in fact, he wrote the paper while serving as the senior medical adviser to GW Pharmaceuticals, the Big Pharma manufacturer of the cannabis drug Sativex.

For example, reported anti-anxiety properties of limonene are based on research done on mice using bitter orange extracts, which indeed show effects. But these mild observations cannot be directly translated to humans and often require very high doses. Limonene was also studied in a Phase I clinical trial for treating cancer, but has not yet advanced to Phase II. Similarly, myrcene has been studied for its pain-relieving properties, but conclusive evidence in humans has not been identified.

A review published this past January about the applications of terpenes for colorectal cancer indicated that terpenes may act as preventive agents, but their potential (not proven or even loosely indicated) cancer-fighting properties need further investigation.

Any mild medicinal benefits from terpenes in prevention of disease or induction of mild anti-anxiety effects can be best obtained from their natural sources. Want some of those limonene anti-anxiety effects? Eat an orange. Want the limonene gastro-esophageal benefits? Squeeze some lemon over your meal. The calming effects of caryophyllene? Sprinkle some oregano over your pizza.

The benefits of a vegetable-rich diet don’t just stem from vitamins and fiber, think of all the terpenes!
 

Baron23

Well-Known Member
Thanks Mom, great couple of articles. We just don't yet have the needed research and it seems our community lurches a bit from fast spreading fad idea to fad idea (really the primary meaning of the word meme).

But, we all have direct experience with differing chemotypes of MJ and there are definite differences between many of them. Is it terps? If not, what combination of canninoids make the difference in effects that we experience?

We still don't know while all the while processors are dumping in terps to their cartridge oils. We are a bit of the blind leading the blind on this, I believe.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
@Baron23 about a year ago it was all the rage to add a bit of terps to your dab before hitting it. You could buy all sorts of 'flavors.' I tried a couple and wasn't at all impressed. I felt it ruined a real good dab.... :twocents:

I've noticed that most of the companies that were selling terps aren't around anymore. That's always a good indicator of how good an idea is. :biggrin:
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Fragrant oils in cannabis harvested for medical treatment

Israeli medical cannabis company Bazelet is developing proprietary technology to isolate and utilize specific terpenes to treat specific ailments.
By Brian Blum FEBRUARY 8, 2018, 7:00 AM
shutterstock_CBD-768x432.jpg


One of the reasons research into medical cannabis has leapt so high in recent years is that the plant itself is remarkably complex. There are 142 different “cannabinoids” – active components – in cannabis that can target different illnesses.

The two best known are THC, the main psychoactive ingredient that also treats pain and nausea; and CBD, which is non-hallucinogenic and works on the autoimmune system.

The cannabis plant also contains terpenes, fragrant oils that provide a distinctive flavor and aroma. Many cannabis blends are named after their terpenes, which can provide a “blueberry” or “sour diesel” taste, for instance.

Israeli medical cannabis company Bazelet announced this week that it has developed proprietary technology to isolate and utilize specific terpenes to treat specific ailments, including chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, epilepsy and autism.

Bazelet says its technology can “improve the therapeutic quality of cannabis by adding a small amount of selected and indication-specific terpene blends.”

Bazelet has been conducting clinical trials on terpenes for pain relief and PTSD at Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem and for epilepsy at Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel in Petah Tikva.

Bazelet last year filed its first patent application for the terpene technology and two more are planned. The company has filed 14 patent applications in total for medical cannabis-based products including packaged cannabis buds, cannabis oil, sustained release cannabis capsules, and the PUFFiT-X vaporizer that looks and works like an asthma inhaler.

Bazelet is also closely tracking proposed changes in Israeli law that may soon enable massively increased exports of medical cannabis. The company is ready with a new manufacturing site that will have an extraction capacity of 60 tons of year, sufficient to serve 100,000 medical cannabis patients.

Bazelet runs a technology incubator out of which 10 patent applications have been filed in the last year alone. That could be a profitable IP portfolio to have: The medical cannabis market is expected to reach a market value of $56 billion by 2025.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
This article is, obviously, aimed towards smokers.... so I think we could add a Commandment... Thou shalt vaporize.... :biggrin:

The 10 Terp Commandments: How to Preserve the Aroma of Your Cannabis

We’re living in heady times. Cannabis products are rapidly advancing. Connoisseur-level appreciation for them is flourishing.

But look around you and you’ll still see people unknowingly wasting their precious time and hard-earned money, throwing perfectly good
cannabis terpenes to the wind. Don’t make the mistake of sullying divine flavors with cheap plastic bags and resiny old pipes.

It’s time to emancipate yourself from mental slavery. Here are ten terpene preservation commandments—guidelines to help you identify, preserve, and appreciate your bud’s flavorful potential.

Thou Shalt Smell Your Cannabis Before You Buy It (If Possible)
The nose is the seat of memory and an evolutionary marvel. Let it lead you to the cannabis you’ll instantly know as “home.” The hippies turned out to be right: aromatherapy has empirical effects and it starts with the retail smelling experience.

Thou Shalt Leave No Terp Behind
Plastic degrades terpenes and cannabinoids. Get it out of cheap supply chain packaging and into some glass promptly. Seal your terps up tightly at all times. Smell loud in the air? That’s your hard-earned money, and someone else’s time, resources, and energy off-gassing in a room. Don’t let them escape, except into your nose and lungs.

Thou Shalt Store Strains Separately
Different types of cannabis are called strains, and they’re as real as different breeds of dog. “What breed is it?” “Dog. It’s a dog-type dog.” See how silly that sounds? Showcase your intelligence and preserve them separately.

Thou Shalt Keep Your Pieces Clean of Foul-Smelling Resin
Do you drink wine out of an old glass that’s been sitting outside on your sun deck for few days? No. Look—we get it. Keeping glass clean is hard. Just try, will you? Do it for the terps. The important thing is striving toward goals, not completing them all the time.

Thou Shalt Burn No Terp Before Its Time
Heat and light breaks the delicate chemical bonds of terpenes, burning them. You’re wasting nature’s gift. Don’t cook terps in your hot car. Preserve flowers in a cool and dark place until it’s time to shine.

Also, dab at low temperatures.

Thou Shalt Use a Grinder
Herb grinders unlock the aroma in the dense, resinous cannabis bud. Mashing an unbroken nug into a bowl and firing it with a Bic Lighter takes 80% of the enjoyment out of smoking.

Thou Shalt Use a Hemp Wick
Just as you light a cigar with a wooden match, you can light cannabis with a tiny bit of hemp wick. The butane in a Bic lighter seemingly masks the terpenes and gives all bud the same dull sweet taste.

Thou Shalt Not Hoard Terps
Time is the thief that steals all. So enjoy your terps fresh and share liberally in cannabis’ long-held tradition. To be miserly or withhold is unbecoming.

Thou Shalt Spread the Terp Gospel with Humility and Grace
Because no one likes a snob.


 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Marijuana’s Delta 3 Carene: The Terpene With Tons Of Medical Benefits

When it comes to the medicinal effect of cannabis, people tend to think the plant’s most valuable benefits are located within the cannabinoids. As it turns out, the terpenes of the plant have a lot to offer in terms of medicinal value. One of these terpenes is called Delta 3 Carene, and it’s found in cannabis while also im other plants like basil, bell pepper and pine.

For cannabis people, terpenes are the parts of the plant that give marijuana it’s particular smell, flavor and that differentiate strains from each other.

Delta 3 Carene is very effective for a variety of conditions and it’s also a powerful anti-inflammatory agent, which is used to treat fibromyalgia, arthritis and bursitis. Some evidence from people who use Delta 3 Carene and from a study that took place in 2008, suggests that the terpene speeds up the healing of bones, so in the future, researchers believe it could turn out to be an important tool when dealing with diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. The study found that the terpene worked very well when treating bones that have suffered from malnutrition.

Another one of the uses for the terpene has been the stimulation of memory and the increase of memory retention, which could make Delta 3 Carene very useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s, proving to be a better option for other drugs that could lead to addiction and other symptoms.
 

Cuckfumbustion

Lo and Behold! The transformative power of Vapor.
Companies such as Terpalchemi are already extracting the aromatic essential oil of cannabis and marketing it in several countries around the world.
Know very little about terpenes. More misinformation than information and that some vaporists dabble with it. :science:
And you can buy 'terpenes' by the bottle in liquid form. FWIW.
Aren't certain ones common enough and found in things like lemons, mangos, lemongrass, lemonbalm and other plants?
Don't know how much is isolated, if at all from things like essential oils?
 

420edc

Active Member
Sponsor

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member

Researchers Reveal How Curing Cannabis Affects Terpene Levels


New analysis by the research-focused terpenes firm Eybna Technologies shows how various terpenes are affected by the cannabis curing process.

Many cannabis flowers are dried and cured before going to market, but live products are crafted using flower that is taken fresh off the plant. The flavor and aromatic notes are robust and more closely resemble that of the live cannabis plant than other concentrates. This may be why live resin products are in such high demand in all adult-use cannabis markets. Consumers don’t just dab live resin, they are also buying live vape cartridges. According to statistics from the BDSA Green Edge platform, live resin captures a 22% share of California’s vape market.

Headspace technology​

Research-focused terpene company Eybna Technologies noticed the market’s natural preference for live resin and sought to understand why these products were more desirable to the consumer. To do this, the terpene profile of a few cannabis plants were studied at three phases. The data was collected from the plant using the company’s proprietary Headspace technology which can provide insight into the chemical makeup of flowering plants. Headspace technology is a tool traditionally used in the fragrance industry to capture the makeup of plants at their aromatic peak. This is the first time the technology has been used for researching the cannabis plant.

All plants used in this study were grown in controlled conditions in a medical cannabis greenhouse. Researchers used Headspace tech to collect data from multiple top colas on the same plant to cut down the possibility for error. The study was focused on monitoring the patterns of terpene change throughout the cannabis life cycle in hopes of revealing the phytochemical difference between cured and live plant profiles.

The Headspace technology utilizes an adsorbent fiber located within a hollow glass dome to collect various volatile compounds from the live plant. Using this fiber, terpene content was collected at 3 stages: from fresh colas on the live plant, after they had been dried for one week, and again after being dried and cured.

The results​

As expected, the results offer insight into which terpenesdegraded/evaporated and which preserved at various points of production from the farm to the dispensary shelf. Findings show that at the fresh, planted state, a cultivar has the highest expression of monoterpenes like Beta Myrcene, Alpha Pinene, Beta Pinene, and Limonene. After one week of drying and curing, each of these terpenes decreased significantly — Beta Myrcene content decreased by 55%. While monoterpenes were decreased during the curing process, sesquiterpenes like Alpha Humulene and Beta-Caryophyllene were increased. Sesquiterpenes almost doubled in their ratio from the total terpene content in data taken after the harvest processes were complete, with Alpha-Humulene increasing 100% and Germacrene increasing 154%.

Screen-Shot-2020-09-16-at-20.46.10-2.png



Many compounds in the plant are highly volatile, evaporating from plants with the smallest change in the atmosphere. Monoterpenes have a lower molecular weight and higher evaporation rate, the patterns shown by this research supports our current understanding of the volatile nature of cannabis compounds. The study results also showed the significant evaporation curve of some other highly volatile compounds responsible for the cannabis top aromatic notes.

For the industry, it provides scientific understanding into why many consumers prefer live concentrates to those extracted from dried, cured herb. Based on the data presented by Eybna, the depth of flavor and strong aroma of live resin may be directly related to the percentage of monoterpenes available at this stage in the plant cycle.

“By advancing our research tools to capture every single note the fresh cannabis flower produces, pushing each raw material to the highest level of purity, and the great passion of our team for the diversified cannabis aroma – we were able to make a new category of live botanical terpene profiles.” — Nadav Eyal, Co-Founder & CEO of Eybna Technologies
In response to the demand for complete flavor profiles in vape products, Eybna has used these findings to develop a “Live Line” based on the rare aromatic profiles of live cannabis plants. The company is offering a line of botanical terpenes in Cherry Kush, Sequoia, Forbidden Fruit, Alien OG, Orange Cookies, and Kush Note to assist cannabis brands as they answer the demand for more authentic, whole-plant cannabis products.

In the future, their data may be used to estimate the age of a plant, the date of harvest, and possibly even the length of the curing process.

Eybna’s new terpene formulations have a unique taste and smell profile but are not intended to replace the live resin products available on the market, and the company says it will ensure its products are not made with the aim of misleading consumers. The company intends to continue its research with the Headspace technology into the cannabis plant’s many fascinating and volatile compounds.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member

INDICA AND SATIVA ARE WRONG, STUDY FINDS YOU BUY CANNABIS FOR TERPENES


Cannabis cultivars — informally known as “strains” — stretch across a spectrum of effects and aromas, spinning into various products. Consumers commonly divide this spectrum into Indica and Sativa while incorrectly focusing on THC percentage. However, a recent study supports that we’re selling cannabis wrong — Indica and Sativa are misleading, and consumers buy weed based on terpenes.

Indica and Sativa are damned by terpenes​

Back in October of 2018, it was distinctly clarified that Indica and Sativa falsely leveraged consumer choice. John McPartland released a study on fossil records of cultivated cannabis. Indica and Sativa, as scientific classifications, should depict genetic variations rather than pharmacodynamic effects. However, as vernacular terms on the market today, cannabis terminology has been washed into a sea of hybrids and crosses without a well-understood scientific foundation.

At least, that was the story reiterated by many academics and journalists following the fossil study by McPartland, including Daniel Piomelli’s damning interview with Ethan Russo. (2) Genetic sequencing of different cultivars in Colorado in 2019 also failed to find solid ground for the Indica versus Sativa debate. (3) Yet, it is no secret that cannabis’s diversity appears uniquely sorted and partially dependent on certain factors, especially terpenes.

Labels without terpenes – is cannabis sold wrong?​

A new study by Dalhousie University published in Nature Plants supports the idea that the scientific characteristics of ‘Indica and Sativa’ is the wrong method for consumer choice. (4) Rather, terpenes were confirmed to have profound importance on the market. And beyond what was already assumed, Indica and Sativa labels are now secretly sorted by different terpene synthase genes found throughout the plant kingdom.

And so, science continues to confirm that terpenes are the denominating factor behind consumer choice. Now, however, genetic fingerprints have given us a better scientific foothold to classify cannabis by chemovar.

‘Indica,’ according to consumer labels, is dominated by earthy aromas. Otherwise, myrcene and other monoterpenes can be predominant in cannabis labelled Indica on the Dutch medical market, according to this new research. And while that has seen mixed results in the literature, earlier research on Dutch cannabis in 2016 also found myrcene biased towards Indica labels. (5)

Cannabis-chemovar-label-russo.png


Cultivars are to strains as chemovars are to the whole chemical profile​

Specific genes depicting terpene expression are now more precisely mapped with this new study, though. And this map tells us that cultivars are unknowingly labelled Indica and Sativa on the market due to terpene synthase genes rather than the plant’s ancestors and physical characteristics.

A chemovar describes the entire composition of each cultivar, which some retailers suggest is too complex for consumers. A new study, however, has determined that classic interpretations of Indica and Sativa are wrong. So, should you buy cannabis depending on terpenes and the whole profile?

  • Different arrays of terpenes depend on different genetic fingerprints due to the way terpenes are made in the plant. Myrcene, THC, and CBG express with a different chromosome than guaiol and CBD, for example. And remember that cannabinoids and terpenes are cousins created from the same botanical metabolites.

Show your work​

  • Cannabis sativa sativa and C. sativa indica instead refers to taxonomic names for cultivated cannabis and is not to be confused with the vernacular terms, Indica and Sativa.
  • Genotype describes the genetic profile.
  • Phenotype depicts the physical characteristics.
  • This article is based primarily on Watts et al. 2021, which was funded and partially designed by Bedrocan, a licensed cannabis producer in the Netherlands.
  • 100 cannabis cultivars were sequenced and Indica and Sativa were determined genetically indistinct based on genotyping for 116,296 single nucleotide polymorphisms.
  • 40 different terpenes and cannabinoids are quantified using GC–MS.

Sources​

  1. McPartland J. M. (2018). Cannabis Systematics at the Levels of Family, Genus, and Species. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.0039
  2. Piomelli D, Russo EB (2016) The Cannabis sativa versus Cannabis indica debate: an interview with Ethan Russo, MD, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 1:1, 44–46, DOI: 10.1089/can.2015.29003.ebr.
  3. Schwabe, A.L., McGlaughlin, M.E. Genetic tools weed out misconceptions of strain reliability in Cannabis sativa: implications for a budding industry. J Cannabis Res 1, 3 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-019-0001-1
  4. Watts, S., McElroy, M., Migicovsky, Z. et al. Cannabis labelling is associated with genetic variation in terpene synthase genes. Nat. Plants 7, 1330–1334 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-021-01003-y
  5. Hazekamp, A., Tekalova, K. & Papadimitriou, S. Cannabis: from cultivar to chemovar II—a metabolomics approach to cannabis classification. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0017 (2016).
  6. Russo, Ethan. (2017). Cannabidiol Claims and Misconceptions: (Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 38, 198-201, 2017). Trends in pharmacological sciences. 38. 10.1016/j.tips.2017.03.006.
 

bulllee

Well-Known Member

INDICA AND SATIVA ARE WRONG, STUDY FINDS YOU BUY CANNABIS FOR TERPENES


Cannabis cultivars — informally known as “strains” — stretch across a spectrum of effects and aromas, spinning into various products. Consumers commonly divide this spectrum into Indica and Sativa while incorrectly focusing on THC percentage. However, a recent study supports that we’re selling cannabis wrong — Indica and Sativa are misleading, and consumers buy weed based on terpenes.

Indica and Sativa are damned by terpenes​

Back in October of 2018, it was distinctly clarified that Indica and Sativa falsely leveraged consumer choice. John McPartland released a study on fossil records of cultivated cannabis. Indica and Sativa, as scientific classifications, should depict genetic variations rather than pharmacodynamic effects. However, as vernacular terms on the market today, cannabis terminology has been washed into a sea of hybrids and crosses without a well-understood scientific foundation.

At least, that was the story reiterated by many academics and journalists following the fossil study by McPartland, including Daniel Piomelli’s damning interview with Ethan Russo. (2) Genetic sequencing of different cultivars in Colorado in 2019 also failed to find solid ground for the Indica versus Sativa debate. (3) Yet, it is no secret that cannabis’s diversity appears uniquely sorted and partially dependent on certain factors, especially terpenes.

Labels without terpenes – is cannabis sold wrong?​

A new study by Dalhousie University published in Nature Plants supports the idea that the scientific characteristics of ‘Indica and Sativa’ is the wrong method for consumer choice. (4) Rather, terpenes were confirmed to have profound importance on the market. And beyond what was already assumed, Indica and Sativa labels are now secretly sorted by different terpene synthase genes found throughout the plant kingdom.

And so, science continues to confirm that terpenes are the denominating factor behind consumer choice. Now, however, genetic fingerprints have given us a better scientific foothold to classify cannabis by chemovar.

‘Indica,’ according to consumer labels, is dominated by earthy aromas. Otherwise, myrcene and other monoterpenes can be predominant in cannabis labelled Indica on the Dutch medical market, according to this new research. And while that has seen mixed results in the literature, earlier research on Dutch cannabis in 2016 also found myrcene biased towards Indica labels. (5)

View attachment 31666

Cultivars are to strains as chemovars are to the whole chemical profile​

Specific genes depicting terpene expression are now more precisely mapped with this new study, though. And this map tells us that cultivars are unknowingly labelled Indica and Sativa on the market due to terpene synthase genes rather than the plant’s ancestors and physical characteristics.

A chemovar describes the entire composition of each cultivar, which some retailers suggest is too complex for consumers. A new study, however, has determined that classic interpretations of Indica and Sativa are wrong. So, should you buy cannabis depending on terpenes and the whole profile?

  • Different arrays of terpenes depend on different genetic fingerprints due to the way terpenes are made in the plant. Myrcene, THC, and CBG express with a different chromosome than guaiol and CBD, for example. And remember that cannabinoids and terpenes are cousins created from the same botanical metabolites.

Show your work​

  • Cannabis sativa sativa and C. sativa indica instead refers to taxonomic names for cultivated cannabis and is not to be confused with the vernacular terms, Indica and Sativa.
  • Genotype describes the genetic profile.
  • Phenotype depicts the physical characteristics.
  • This article is based primarily on Watts et al. 2021, which was funded and partially designed by Bedrocan, a licensed cannabis producer in the Netherlands.
  • 100 cannabis cultivars were sequenced and Indica and Sativa were determined genetically indistinct based on genotyping for 116,296 single nucleotide polymorphisms.
  • 40 different terpenes and cannabinoids are quantified using GC–MS.

Sources​

  1. McPartland J. M. (2018). Cannabis Systematics at the Levels of Family, Genus, and Species. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 3(1), 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.0039
  2. Piomelli D, Russo EB (2016) The Cannabis sativa versus Cannabis indica debate: an interview with Ethan Russo, MD, Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research 1:1, 44–46, DOI: 10.1089/can.2015.29003.ebr.
  3. Schwabe, A.L., McGlaughlin, M.E. Genetic tools weed out misconceptions of strain reliability in Cannabis sativa: implications for a budding industry. J Cannabis Res 1, 3 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42238-019-0001-1
  4. Watts, S., McElroy, M., Migicovsky, Z. et al. Cannabis labelling is associated with genetic variation in terpene synthase genes. Nat. Plants 7, 1330–1334 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41477-021-01003-y
  5. Hazekamp, A., Tekalova, K. & Papadimitriou, S. Cannabis: from cultivar to chemovar II—a metabolomics approach to cannabis classification. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2016.0017 (2016).
  6. Russo, Ethan. (2017). Cannabidiol Claims and Misconceptions: (Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 38, 198-201, 2017). Trends in pharmacological sciences. 38. 10.1016/j.tips.2017.03.006.
I have always felt awkward at a dispensary when I ask about test results. First they tell you the THC %, which is nice but I'm no THC whore, I love the terps. I ask about terpene profiles and I get a blank stare :doh:. I agree with @Baron23 a lot more research is needed. I didn't trust those drops when they came out, just me but I think they fuck your lungs up.
 

JBone65

New Member
Prices in Oklahoma are beginning to collapse, as might be expected with 9000 licensed growers.

A place called Mango Dispensary is having a 420 sale all week, with a 42% discount on the already low prices.
Lilac Diesel 4-14-22.jpg

Bought two ounces of Lilac Diesel for $41 each (tax included). Bought one and liked it so much went back for another. Smells like orange cookies due to the unusual terpene profile. This could be greenhouse grown, the bud tender didn't know. Im guessing top shelf weed would be 50% better but this works surprisingly well in my grasshopper io.

Lilac Diesel Terpene Breakdown​

Pinene0.09%
Myrcene0.03%
Ocimene0.07%
Humulene0.04%
Limonene0.04%
Linalool0.01%
Sabinene0.08%
Bisabolol0.17%
Valencene0.11%
Terpinolene0.26%
Caryophyllene0.1%
Total terpenes content1.00%

I enjoy blending complimentary strains, so I also bought an ounce of gelato 33 but paid $91 for that.

Gelato #33 Terpene Breakdown​

Pinene0.05%
Myrcene0.06%
Ocimene0.05%
Camphene0.06%
Geraniol0.08%
Humulene0.06%
Limonene0.11%
Linalool0.06%
Bisabolol0.16%
Terpinolene0.01%
Phellandrene0.12%
Caryophyllene0.2%
Total terpenes content1.00%

PXL_20220417_180632314.PORTRAIT.jpg

Here is the Gelato 33. The trichomes are there but it's not too hairy.
 
Last edited:

Kellya86

Herb Gardener.....
Prices in Oklahoma are beginning to collapse, as might be expected with 9000 licensed growers.

A place called Mango Dispensary is having a 420 sale all week, with a 42% discount on the already low prices.
View attachment 35309
Bought two ounces of Lilac Diesel for $41 each (tax included). Bought one and liked it so much went back for another. Smells like orange cookies due to the unusual terpene profile. This could be greenhouse grown, the bud tender didn't know. Im guessing top shelf weed would be 50% better but this works surprisingly well in my grasshopper io.

Lilac Diesel Terpene Breakdown​

Pinene0.09%
Myrcene0.03%
Ocimene0.07%
Humulene0.04%
Limonene0.04%
Linalool0.01%
Sabinene0.08%
Bisabolol0.17%
Valencene0.11%
Terpinolene0.26%
Caryophyllene0.1%
Total terpenes content1.00%

I enjoy blending complimentary strains, so I also bought an ounce of gelato 33 but paid $91 for that.

Gelato #33 Terpene Breakdown​

Pinene0.05%
Myrcene0.06%
Ocimene0.05%
Camphene0.06%
Geraniol0.08%
Humulene0.06%
Limonene0.11%
Linalool0.06%
Bisabolol0.16%
Terpinolene0.01%
Phellandrene0.12%
Caryophyllene0.2%
Total terpenes content1.00%

View attachment 35310
Here is the Gelato 33. The trichomes are there but it's not too hairy.

The joys of it being legal....
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member

THC & Terps

Cannabis provides an entourage of useful compounds and while THC remains king, terpenes are coming for the crown.

THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is the principal psychoactive compound found in cannabis. Prohibitive cannabis laws define the plant based on THC levels, and in the United States, cannabis with less than 0.3% THC on a dry weight basis is non-psychoactive and therefore considered hemp.

Until recent years, consumers at the dispensary counter were primarily only concerned about jockeying for the cannabis and concentrates with the maximum amount of THC. Today, they’re smartening up and asking more about terpene and other cannabinoid content. THC, however, remains the most crucial compound overall in terms of the plant’s psychoactive high.

There are multiple reasons for seeking high-THC levels in products beyond shooting for the most potent effect. One benefit of high-THC products for medical patients, for instance, is that high-THC products can provide relief while limiting the amount of smoke and thus reducing harm.

The Chemistry of Higher THC Products​

SC (Science of Cannabis) Labs opened in 2010 in Capitola, California. Co-founded by Jeff Gray, Josh Wurzer, Alec Dixon, and Ian Rice, the company helped develop some of the industry’s first testing standards.

“Early on, we emphasized testing cannabinoids and specifically THC,” SC Labs President and Co-Founder Josh Wurzer says. “The THC content became very associated with the perception of quality in cannabis. That was the only quantitative metric you had to describe the cannabis—the percentage of cannabinoids.”

Examining high THC levels is one of Wurzer’s focuses, as he applied for several cannabis-related patents, some related to the improvement of the extraction of cannabis.


Today, many people still equate higher THC concentrations with better quality.

“That’s just not the case,” Wurzer says. “When we look at these different events—High Times Cannabis Cups and The Emerald Cup—the winners usually don’t have any higher THC percentage. They almost always have a greater average terpene concentration. What consumers should be looking for is the terpene concentration of the products they’re buying.”

The over-emphasis on THC is partly due to chemistry and the way THC is quickly depleted. THC is, in fact, surprisingly quite delicate once the smoking process begins.

“The THC percentage isn’t really that important in an inhalable product,” Wurzer continues. “You’re exhaling the vast majority of the THC you’re inhaling. Really, you could just hold the hit in longer, but the THC concentration doesn’t even necessarily get you higher. What makes [cannabis] taste better and makes the effects more pronounced is the terpene concentration, and that’s where consumers should be looking.”

While it’s the most powerful psychoactive compound in cannabis, THC is best experienced the natural way, combined with other compounds.

The Highest THC Concentrates​

Just how high in THC percentage can concentrates get? Some approach pure THC.

“I’ve seen people make 99% concentrate distillate—purified THC—but I wouldn’t want to smoke it,” SC Labs Director of Client Relations and Co-founder Alec Dixon says. “I wouldn’t want to consume it. It would taste bad. It would be harsh. The higher concentration concentrates are generally not the most desirable.”

If the taste matters, a better metric for determining the quality of concentrates would be quite a lower amount of THC, he says. The way terps are preserved in live resin is one of the ways concentrates have improved over the past decade or so.

“Good live resin concentrate should be anywhere from 60 to 80% [THC], and that’s going to be the most flavorful,” Dixon says. “I’ve seen the best effects on live resin, and it’s generally considered to be a much more premium product than, say, like a distillate that’s in the 90s and that has artificial terpenes added to it.”

Dixon says that on the cultural side of things, it’s always been known to farmers that terpene content is way more of a predictive indicator of quality, evident when you open up a jar and bomb the whole neighborhood with the smell of great pot.

“Smell and aroma directly coordinate toward effect,” Dixon says. “In their absence, it’s quite a bland THC effect. Unfortunately, the market is so focused on THC. It’s bound to be terp-less and, [therefore] soulless. Part of what we do with the Emerald Cup and California State Fair is to sort everything by terpene. It comes down to personal preference. To me, my favorite profiles are gas and Haze, that terpinolene Jack Herer strain.”

SC Labs is among many labs that test for THC content, and variance depends on where the samples are taken.

“When it comes to potency, the top versus the middle versus the bottom bud, they can test very differently depending on how the farmer prunes their plant,” Dixon says. “The more leaves on the plants in the crucial parts of development, the bigger the variance is going to be from top to bottom.”

He says that most farmers who do canopy management and remove foliage remove way too much leaf, way too late in the flowering stage. As a result, areas in the middle and bottom sections are shaded by leaves, leading to massive variance in the potency levels of the buds depending on where they are grown.

High THC from a Consumer Perspective​

Greenwolf dispensary has won many Cannabis Cup awards, too many to list in full, but a few concentrate wins stand out. In 2017, Greenwolf took home a barrage of awards at the Cannabis Cup, winning first place with MNG for “Best Sativa Concentrate” with their offering Nectarine. In 2018, Greenwolf won “Best Non-Solvent Hash” for Clementine in collaboration with Rosin Brothers. Greenwolf is known throughout Southern California as a trusted retailer.

Greenwolf hosted the Greenwolf Winter Zalympix Awards Ceremony on Jan. 22 in Los Angeles, featuring YG and Larry June, among other performers. It was an exotic cannabis competition with judges’ kits and an awards ceremony. Greenwolf also presented the Zalympix Championships on June 11 in collaboration with Secret Sesh. Competitors representing the winners of the summer and winter Zalympix events competed in a “Battle of the Champions.”

The Greenwolf team is used to people asking about THC levels and their importance to the smoking experience. Come to find out, they are bombarded with this question daily.

“I’ve been talking to actual customers all morning about this!” says Liz Caffrey, owner and COO of Greenwolf. “And it’s interesting because I feel like maybe two years ago, people literally just came in, and they didn’t care what the strain was called or who grew it. All they wanted to know from a budtender was what the THC percentage was.”

Caffrey says in the last year or so, people are getting more and more educated about what defines quality cannabis, and they’re starting to realize that the THC percentage is not always the sole compound that produces the plant’s effects.

“The terpenes play a large role in the actual effects that you feel,” Caffrey says. “And I do believe that the consumer is starting to realize this.”

Caffrey doesn’t really see anything over 40% THC—except for infused pre-rolls when it comes to flower. Infused pre-rolls are enhanced with concentrates such as wax, distillate, or diamonds. Caffrey says labels can be quite deceiving, as one brand could have stunning packaging with disappointedly subpar effects.

“I do feel like the consumer is finally starting to have brand loyalty in what I call ‘the new market.’ And they’re doing their own research, which is great,” she says.

Caffrey explains that people don’t realize that the feeling they get from a good sativa that has 20% THC but is grown well might also have a high limonene percentage, which can provide a mood boost.

“I feel like [THC levels] go hand-in-hand with pricing,” she says. “Like the consumers more willing to pay a higher price if the THC percentage is above 30. I consider high THC 30 to 40%.”

Caffrey says that in retail in California, pre-rolls are probably the number-one seller, and infused pre-rolls are the top-tier of these types of sales.

“A customer will look at an infused pre-roll in awe, as it can have a 50 to 80% THC profile, and they think, ‘I’m getting all that in this one gram!'”

When choosing a high-THC product, consider taking the advice from laboratory leaders such as SC Labs or retail leaders like Greenwolf. As anyone with experience will tell you, inform yourself of the terpene content as well as the THC.
 

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