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Meds Terpenes

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
What are cannabis terpenes?

Terpenes are as unfamiliar as they are pivotal to cannabis lovers, since they determine the plant’s aromatic fragrance. They are what give Cheese its signature old cheese smell and Dinamed CBD its citrus aroma. However, these compounds have been pushed into the background overshadowed by cannabinoids – mainly THC and more recently CBD – and their effects. Then why not explore the potential of these compounds that can even be found separately in the market? What are terpenes and what properties do they have? Let’s find out!

16/05/17
Out of the many chemical compounds present in cannabis, some 140 belong to this group of organic hydrocarbons known as “terpenes”. Terpenes are volatile molecules that evaporate easily and reach the nose helping us identify the vegetable we are looking at. In fact, terpenes are not exclusive to marijuana, but they are present in many other plant species. These compounds, which account for cannabis aroma, have most likely played a major role in mankind’s strain selection and cannabis domestication, as the aroma is very much taken into account in breeding.


What are terpenes?
Terpenes are organic compounds made up of carbon atoms and hydrogen that consist of repeating units of a 5-carbon molecule known as isoprene. According to the number of repetitions (isoprene units), they are classified in different groups, and so cannabis has:

  • Monoterpenes: made up of 2 isoprene units, that is 10 carbon atoms. The main monoterpenes present is cannabis are limonene, myrcene, pinene, terpinolene and linalool.
  • Sesquiterpenes: made up of 15 carbon atoms.
  • Triterpenes: made up of 30 carbon atoms, they are mainly found in cannabis roots, fibres and seeds.
The terpenes found in the chemical composition of cannabis are synthesized in the secretory cells of glandular trichomes and its production is increased with light exposure. Just us cannabinoids, they are mainly found in resin.

What are the functions of terpenes in cannabis plants?
These fragrant compounds are found in higher concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers and play a major role in protecting the plant from bacteria, fungus, insects and other environmental stresses.

The number of terpenes and their composition varies according to the genetics of each plant and to the growing conditions. As we have just explained, these aromatic compounds are used by plants to repel predators but also to attract pollinating insects. There are several factors that can affect their production: the weather, the maturing period, the nutrients, the soil and even the time of day of harvest.

Even if each plant has its own unique terpene profile, the smell of the plants of the same variety tends to be similar, which is helpful when it comes to identifying the strain. This is because the terpene combination in the individuals of a same genetics is very similar, and so we can tell a Cheese from a Critical +or an Original Amnesia through smell.


Terpenes as precursors of cannabinoids
Terpenes are believed to be involved in cannabinoid production, as these are made up of terpene blocks and phenol groups. In standard growing conditions, the terpene and the cannabinoid levels have been found to be correlated, which could be explained by the fact that both monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are synthesized in the same glandular trichomes as cannabinoids.

How is terpene oil (aka cannabis essential oil) extracted?
Cannabis essential oil can be extracted via steam distillation, a simple and traditional process in which the steam passes through the plant material (marijuana) taking the oil with it. Contrary to cannabinoids, terpenes are water-soluble, this is why this method ensures that only terpenes – and not cannabinoids – are extracted. As a result, the obtained essential oil has no psychoactive effect whatsoever.

The process is simple: you just have to place the cannabis together with some water in an R. B. flask and heat it up so that the water turns into steam. This way, the terpenes are transferred to a second flask through a glass outlet along with the steam, were it is refrigerated and turned back into water. Once in liquid state, the essential oil containing the terpenes floats on top of the water and can be easily separated.


What are the applications of terpene essential oil?
With the above described process, it is possible to extract the terpenes of all the cannabis strains known to date. Can you imagine having the flavour and aroma of an OG Kush in the palm of your hand? Or opening a bottle and being carried away by the powerful fragrance of a Cheese? Companies such as Terpalchemi are already extracting the aromatic essential oil of cannabis and marketing it in several countries around the world.

These extracts are delicacies that are sold in small quantities, as huge amounts of cannabis are necessary in order to produce a tiny amount of oil. Here are some of its applications:


  • Aromatherapy: the oil can be added to creams, lotions and massage oils.
  • Enjoying the aromas of cannabis without its psychoactive effects by adding the oil to cigarettes.
  • Dabs: when cannabis extractions are performed, some terpenes may be lost in the process, and along with them, the taste of cannabis. Well, this type of oil can be the perfect solution in such cases.
And the list doesn’t end here. With the FDA and other agencies having classified it as a safe substance and producing no psychoactive effects, the possibilities are endless.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
FROM GREAT SMELL TO… MEDICAL BENEFITS? THE TRUTH ABOUT TERPENES

A new bar in Downtown Los Angeles is making cocktails spiked with terpenes that are also found in cannabis. There’s nothing wrong with adding an extra terp-kick to your drink, but advertising the terpene’s cancer benefits is a whole separate ball game. Is it any help that this new spot is called Prank Bar?

Prank Bar makes cocktails, such as the “Mon Frere,” a mix of Plymouth Gin Cocchi Americano, limonene terpenes and Regan’s Orange Bitter (I’m no mixologist, but isn’t it redundant to add limonene to a drink that already has orange bitters?), and their limonene-packed “Anti-Inflammatory” ambrosia. These drinks probably carry a powerful aroma, but don’t expect them to cure you of depression or cancer.

This whole terpene craze seemingly started with a review published in the British Journal of Pharmacology in 2011, titled, “Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.” Written by Ethan Russo, a genuine pioneer in the field of cannabis science, this paper made quite a splash in the cannabis industry. After legalization progressed and labs popped up to analyze legal cannabis products for potency—and essential oil content—the terpene obsession really picked up.

Looking at data from different cannabis samples and trying to observe differences in terpene content between strains, some labs began making unsubstantiated claims regarding terpenes.

Indeed, the claim that myrcene, the main terpene in cannabis, somehow increases THC delivery to the brain is based on absolutely nothing, sorry folks. Nevertheless, connoisseurs began to demand higher terpene contents for the flavor, the “medical benefits” and this popular idea that terpenes modulate the effect of cannabinoids in the brain and are responsible for the perceived subjective effects of different strains.

Differences in cannabinoid content is a much more likely scenario for explaining the diverse effects of different cannabis strains—due to the proven and measurable effects these have on the brain.

However, the medical research that Russo used in his famous “entourage effect review is not hearsay from cannabis industry herbalists; in fact, he wrote the paper while serving as the senior medical adviser to GW Pharmaceuticals, the Big Pharma manufacturer of the cannabis drug Sativex.

For example, reported anti-anxiety properties of limonene are based on research done on mice using bitter orange extracts, which indeed show effects. But these mild observations cannot be directly translated to humans and often require very high doses. Limonene was also studied in a Phase I clinical trial for treating cancer, but has not yet advanced to Phase II. Similarly, myrcene has been studied for its pain-relieving properties, but conclusive evidence in humans has not been identified.

A review published this past January about the applications of terpenes for colorectal cancer indicated that terpenes may act as preventive agents, but their potential (not proven or even loosely indicated) cancer-fighting properties need further investigation.

Any mild medicinal benefits from terpenes in prevention of disease or induction of mild anti-anxiety effects can be best obtained from their natural sources. Want some of those limonene anti-anxiety effects? Eat an orange. Want the limonene gastro-esophageal benefits? Squeeze some lemon over your meal. The calming effects of caryophyllene? Sprinkle some oregano over your pizza.

The benefits of a vegetable-rich diet don’t just stem from vitamins and fiber, think of all the terpenes!
 

Baron23

Well-Known Member
Thanks Mom, great couple of articles. We just don't yet have the needed research and it seems our community lurches a bit from fast spreading fad idea to fad idea (really the primary meaning of the word meme).

But, we all have direct experience with differing chemotypes of MJ and there are definite differences between many of them. Is it terps? If not, what combination of canninoids make the difference in effects that we experience?

We still don't know while all the while processors are dumping in terps to their cartridge oils. We are a bit of the blind leading the blind on this, I believe.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
@Baron23 about a year ago it was all the rage to add a bit of terps to your dab before hitting it. You could buy all sorts of 'flavors.' I tried a couple and wasn't at all impressed. I felt it ruined a real good dab.... :twocents:

I've noticed that most of the companies that were selling terps aren't around anymore. That's always a good indicator of how good an idea is. :biggrin:
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Fragrant oils in cannabis harvested for medical treatment

Israeli medical cannabis company Bazelet is developing proprietary technology to isolate and utilize specific terpenes to treat specific ailments.
By Brian Blum FEBRUARY 8, 2018, 7:00 AM


One of the reasons research into medical cannabis has leapt so high in recent years is that the plant itself is remarkably complex. There are 142 different “cannabinoids” – active components – in cannabis that can target different illnesses.

The two best known are THC, the main psychoactive ingredient that also treats pain and nausea; and CBD, which is non-hallucinogenic and works on the autoimmune system.

The cannabis plant also contains terpenes, fragrant oils that provide a distinctive flavor and aroma. Many cannabis blends are named after their terpenes, which can provide a “blueberry” or “sour diesel” taste, for instance.

Israeli medical cannabis company Bazelet announced this week that it has developed proprietary technology to isolate and utilize specific terpenes to treat specific ailments, including chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, epilepsy and autism.

Bazelet says its technology can “improve the therapeutic quality of cannabis by adding a small amount of selected and indication-specific terpene blends.”

Bazelet has been conducting clinical trials on terpenes for pain relief and PTSD at Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem and for epilepsy at Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel in Petah Tikva.

Bazelet last year filed its first patent application for the terpene technology and two more are planned. The company has filed 14 patent applications in total for medical cannabis-based products including packaged cannabis buds, cannabis oil, sustained release cannabis capsules, and the PUFFiT-X vaporizer that looks and works like an asthma inhaler.

Bazelet is also closely tracking proposed changes in Israeli law that may soon enable massively increased exports of medical cannabis. The company is ready with a new manufacturing site that will have an extraction capacity of 60 tons of year, sufficient to serve 100,000 medical cannabis patients.

Bazelet runs a technology incubator out of which 10 patent applications have been filed in the last year alone. That could be a profitable IP portfolio to have: The medical cannabis market is expected to reach a market value of $56 billion by 2025.
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
This article is, obviously, aimed towards smokers.... so I think we could add a Commandment... Thou shalt vaporize.... :biggrin:

The 10 Terp Commandments: How to Preserve the Aroma of Your Cannabis

We’re living in heady times. Cannabis products are rapidly advancing. Connoisseur-level appreciation for them is flourishing.

But look around you and you’ll still see people unknowingly wasting their precious time and hard-earned money, throwing perfectly good
cannabis terpenes to the wind. Don’t make the mistake of sullying divine flavors with cheap plastic bags and resiny old pipes.

It’s time to emancipate yourself from mental slavery. Here are ten terpene preservation commandments—guidelines to help you identify, preserve, and appreciate your bud’s flavorful potential.

Thou Shalt Smell Your Cannabis Before You Buy It (If Possible)
The nose is the seat of memory and an evolutionary marvel. Let it lead you to the cannabis you’ll instantly know as “home.” The hippies turned out to be right: aromatherapy has empirical effects and it starts with the retail smelling experience.

Thou Shalt Leave No Terp Behind
Plastic degrades terpenes and cannabinoids. Get it out of cheap supply chain packaging and into some glass promptly. Seal your terps up tightly at all times. Smell loud in the air? That’s your hard-earned money, and someone else’s time, resources, and energy off-gassing in a room. Don’t let them escape, except into your nose and lungs.

Thou Shalt Store Strains Separately
Different types of cannabis are called strains, and they’re as real as different breeds of dog. “What breed is it?” “Dog. It’s a dog-type dog.” See how silly that sounds? Showcase your intelligence and preserve them separately.

Thou Shalt Keep Your Pieces Clean of Foul-Smelling Resin
Do you drink wine out of an old glass that’s been sitting outside on your sun deck for few days? No. Look—we get it. Keeping glass clean is hard. Just try, will you? Do it for the terps. The important thing is striving toward goals, not completing them all the time.

Thou Shalt Burn No Terp Before Its Time
Heat and light breaks the delicate chemical bonds of terpenes, burning them. You’re wasting nature’s gift. Don’t cook terps in your hot car. Preserve flowers in a cool and dark place until it’s time to shine.

Also, dab at low temperatures.

Thou Shalt Use a Grinder
Herb grinders unlock the aroma in the dense, resinous cannabis bud. Mashing an unbroken nug into a bowl and firing it with a Bic Lighter takes 80% of the enjoyment out of smoking.

Thou Shalt Use a Hemp Wick
Just as you light a cigar with a wooden match, you can light cannabis with a tiny bit of hemp wick. The butane in a Bic lighter seemingly masks the terpenes and gives all bud the same dull sweet taste.

Thou Shalt Not Hoard Terps
Time is the thief that steals all. So enjoy your terps fresh and share liberally in cannabis’ long-held tradition. To be miserly or withhold is unbecoming.

Thou Shalt Spread the Terp Gospel with Humility and Grace
Because no one likes a snob.


 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member
Marijuana’s Delta 3 Carene: The Terpene With Tons Of Medical Benefits

When it comes to the medicinal effect of cannabis, people tend to think the plant’s most valuable benefits are located within the cannabinoids. As it turns out, the terpenes of the plant have a lot to offer in terms of medicinal value. One of these terpenes is called Delta 3 Carene, and it’s found in cannabis while also im other plants like basil, bell pepper and pine.

For cannabis people, terpenes are the parts of the plant that give marijuana it’s particular smell, flavor and that differentiate strains from each other.

Delta 3 Carene is very effective for a variety of conditions and it’s also a powerful anti-inflammatory agent, which is used to treat fibromyalgia, arthritis and bursitis. Some evidence from people who use Delta 3 Carene and from a study that took place in 2008, suggests that the terpene speeds up the healing of bones, so in the future, researchers believe it could turn out to be an important tool when dealing with diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. The study found that the terpene worked very well when treating bones that have suffered from malnutrition.

Another one of the uses for the terpene has been the stimulation of memory and the increase of memory retention, which could make Delta 3 Carene very useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s, proving to be a better option for other drugs that could lead to addiction and other symptoms.
 

Cuckfumbustion

Lo and Behold! The transformative power of Vapor.
Companies such as Terpalchemi are already extracting the aromatic essential oil of cannabis and marketing it in several countries around the world.
Know very little about terpenes. More misinformation than information and that some vaporists dabble with it. :science:
And you can buy 'terpenes' by the bottle in liquid form. FWIW.
Aren't certain ones common enough and found in things like lemons, mangos, lemongrass, lemonbalm and other plants?
Don't know how much is isolated, if at all from things like essential oils?
 

momofthegoons

Vapor Accessory Addict
Staff member

Researchers Reveal How Curing Cannabis Affects Terpene Levels


New analysis by the research-focused terpenes firm Eybna Technologies shows how various terpenes are affected by the cannabis curing process.

Many cannabis flowers are dried and cured before going to market, but live products are crafted using flower that is taken fresh off the plant. The flavor and aromatic notes are robust and more closely resemble that of the live cannabis plant than other concentrates. This may be why live resin products are in such high demand in all adult-use cannabis markets. Consumers don’t just dab live resin, they are also buying live vape cartridges. According to statistics from the BDSA Green Edge platform, live resin captures a 22% share of California’s vape market.

Headspace technology​

Research-focused terpene company Eybna Technologies noticed the market’s natural preference for live resin and sought to understand why these products were more desirable to the consumer. To do this, the terpene profile of a few cannabis plants were studied at three phases. The data was collected from the plant using the company’s proprietary Headspace technology which can provide insight into the chemical makeup of flowering plants. Headspace technology is a tool traditionally used in the fragrance industry to capture the makeup of plants at their aromatic peak. This is the first time the technology has been used for researching the cannabis plant.

All plants used in this study were grown in controlled conditions in a medical cannabis greenhouse. Researchers used Headspace tech to collect data from multiple top colas on the same plant to cut down the possibility for error. The study was focused on monitoring the patterns of terpene change throughout the cannabis life cycle in hopes of revealing the phytochemical difference between cured and live plant profiles.

The Headspace technology utilizes an adsorbent fiber located within a hollow glass dome to collect various volatile compounds from the live plant. Using this fiber, terpene content was collected at 3 stages: from fresh colas on the live plant, after they had been dried for one week, and again after being dried and cured.

The results​

As expected, the results offer insight into which terpenesdegraded/evaporated and which preserved at various points of production from the farm to the dispensary shelf. Findings show that at the fresh, planted state, a cultivar has the highest expression of monoterpenes like Beta Myrcene, Alpha Pinene, Beta Pinene, and Limonene. After one week of drying and curing, each of these terpenes decreased significantly — Beta Myrcene content decreased by 55%. While monoterpenes were decreased during the curing process, sesquiterpenes like Alpha Humulene and Beta-Caryophyllene were increased. Sesquiterpenes almost doubled in their ratio from the total terpene content in data taken after the harvest processes were complete, with Alpha-Humulene increasing 100% and Germacrene increasing 154%.

Screen-Shot-2020-09-16-at-20.46.10-2.png



Many compounds in the plant are highly volatile, evaporating from plants with the smallest change in the atmosphere. Monoterpenes have a lower molecular weight and higher evaporation rate, the patterns shown by this research supports our current understanding of the volatile nature of cannabis compounds. The study results also showed the significant evaporation curve of some other highly volatile compounds responsible for the cannabis top aromatic notes.

For the industry, it provides scientific understanding into why many consumers prefer live concentrates to those extracted from dried, cured herb. Based on the data presented by Eybna, the depth of flavor and strong aroma of live resin may be directly related to the percentage of monoterpenes available at this stage in the plant cycle.

“By advancing our research tools to capture every single note the fresh cannabis flower produces, pushing each raw material to the highest level of purity, and the great passion of our team for the diversified cannabis aroma – we were able to make a new category of live botanical terpene profiles.” — Nadav Eyal, Co-Founder & CEO of Eybna Technologies
In response to the demand for complete flavor profiles in vape products, Eybna has used these findings to develop a “Live Line” based on the rare aromatic profiles of live cannabis plants. The company is offering a line of botanical terpenes in Cherry Kush, Sequoia, Forbidden Fruit, Alien OG, Orange Cookies, and Kush Note to assist cannabis brands as they answer the demand for more authentic, whole-plant cannabis products.

In the future, their data may be used to estimate the age of a plant, the date of harvest, and possibly even the length of the curing process.

Eybna’s new terpene formulations have a unique taste and smell profile but are not intended to replace the live resin products available on the market, and the company says it will ensure its products are not made with the aim of misleading consumers. The company intends to continue its research with the Headspace technology into the cannabis plant’s many fascinating and volatile compounds.
 

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