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The First Clinical Trial Of Marijuana For Chemotherapy Starts

Cannabis For Chemo Takes Off Around The World

Posted by christalcann on Friday Dec 23, 2016

The use of medical marijuana continues to grow with time and now, the New South Wales (NSW) government is funding a clinical trial to test the safety and efficacy of marijuana on the side effects prompted by chemotherapy. This will be the world’s first clinical trial of marijuana in the treatment of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. According to The Sydney Morning Herald, this test has already started in Australia. The trials will be done by investigators at the Chris O’Brien Lifehouse together with the University of Sydney alongside the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital as well as other major cancer centers situated in New South Wales, Australia. Used as the basic treatment for cancer, the process of chemotherapy usually causes what are occasionally, troubling side effects such as chills and fever, vomiting and nausea, fatigue, pain and the loss of appetite. The harshness and type of side effects are usually different from an individual to another. However for some, they can be seriously debilitating and may even compel them to quit the medication efforts.

Speaking to The Sydney Morning Herald, the lead investigator and Associate Professor at the Chris O’Brien Lifehouse, Mr. Peter Grimison said that it has been quite a long journey with traditional anti-nausea treatment, but almost a third of ailing persons continue in this condition during and even after chemotherapy. Research in the past shows that marijuana is very effective in reducing vomiting, nausea and pain linked with chemotherapy treatments. A number of studies have also proved that marijuana can be of great benefit for cutting down weight loss as it stimulates appetite and enhances the taste of food. This trial by Grimison is randomized, double blinded and placebo-controlled and is aimed at recruiting about 80 patients for the first phase and then an extra 250 patients for phase two. In the trials, patients will be issued with oral weed substances with small degrees of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The function of marijuana medicine in mitigating chemotherapy-induced vomiting and nausea is still not well-defined. Therefore, this research seeks to make clarifications to this as explained by Grimison.

Addressing The Sydney Morning Herald, the Minister for Medical Research, Pru Goward said that an evidence-based research assessing the efficacy of marijuana is important in determining the plant-based drug as an effective and safe treatment for ailing individuals. Goward further reiterated that, this trial will be very vital in the development of a better understanding of the manner in which cannabis products could provide relief for all those suffering from cancer. It’s surprising to think about how people have been pondering over this subject for 3 decades now and still, no real investment has been made in finding a solution. It is time for the New South Wales to become a global leader in this matter. The research is mainly funded through a pioneering measure drawn by the NSW government that gave $21 million for medical cannabis reforms and trials. Everyone is optimistic that this will make a huge impact in the medical world. For some time now, many people have tried marijuana without a lot of details on the relationship that exists between these conditions and weed.

Now, experts say that it is time to dig out the truth. Patients usually lose a lot of weight via nausea and vomiting. In most cases, they get very sick at a time when their strength is needed to support their ailing body. One of the participants in the clinical trial, 32-year old Lauren Hew is a primary teacher from the Marffield City. Hew has been suffering from vomiting and nausea that have caused her to get hospitalized in between chemotherapy sessions. She has two young ones who she dearly protects from seeing her suffering through the episodes of vomiting. Hew says that she needs her children to regard her as a happy mother that supported them all through and had a well-knit family full of joy and happiness. She believes that marijuana will be the best option for her in dealing with her present condition and that it will give her a chance to be with her family. Hew is committed to take part in this process, whether it works for her or not. She believes it is a worthy cause that would bring freedom to many and lessen their troubles with chemotherapy side effects.

Marijuana has come a long way and despite its prohibition in many parts of the world, it is probably the solution that is being sought after to provide treatment for a number of painful health conditions. This first clinical trial for cancer patients on chemotherapy effects is one of its kind and is believed to bring out the best solution ever. Of course, such a move has been made through past research that has acted as a foundation for this study especially studies that touched on marijuana as a useful substance in pain management.
Cannabis Oil as a Breast Cancer Treatment (Estrogen Positive)?
by Gael
(Hartland, WI)

Can the cannabis oil treatment (orally) cause an estrogen positive breast cancer tumor to grow? This has been suggested on other sites, and I hope it's not true. Does the ratio 1:1 make a difference in this case?

Hi Gael. Thank you for your question regarding using cannabis oil for estrogen positive breast cancer.

Firstly, I don't know which sites you are referring to that suggest the ingestion of cannabis oil can cause estrogen positive breast cancer tumors to grow, but we have not heard of this. In fact, research proves the exact opposite!

Here's an article from the National Cancer Institute website on the anti-tumor effects of cannabinoids... National Cancer Institute.

Here's the paragraph about cannabinoids for breast cancer...

"An in vitro study of the effect of CBD on programmed cell death in breast cancer cell lines found that CBD induced programmed cell death, independent of the CB1, CB2, or vanilloid receptors. CBD inhibited the survival of both estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner while having little effect on nontumorigenic mammary cells.Other studies have also shown the antitumor effect of cannabinoids (i.e., CBD and THC) in preclinical models of breast cancer."

The sentence I'd like to highlight is...

"CBD inhibited the survival of both estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer cell lines, inducing apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner while having little effect on nontumorigenic mammary cells."

That says it all. The other thing I'd like to say is that NOTHING gets printed or published by the National Cancer Institute unless it's been 100% verified, so you can trust that this information is correct. In fact, after all of the studies that have been done world-wide on cannabis and cancer, they have yet to find a type of cancer (or cancer cell) that doesn't respond to the induction of cannabinoids.

When a cancer doesn't respond to cannabinoids, 9 times out of 10 it's because the cannabis oil is not high grade (and the cannabis used was probably crap) or it hasn't been made correctly. This is such a big problem. I did an interview with Rick Simpson and he agreed that this is the biggest reason why people don't get results from using the oil. With that said, if you do have access to some high grade cannabis, here's a "must watch" video on how to make the oil for maximum potency... How to Make a Small Batch of Rick Simpson Oil. You can also read about how to make the correct ratio on Rick's official website here... Make the Medicine.

Hope this helps.

Good luck and all the best,


Troy (Admin)
- See more at: http://www.life-saving-naturalcures...er-treatment-estrogen-positive.html#sthashtag
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How Cannabis Treats Skin Cancer

Could cannabis really help protect our skin?
Skin cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer.

Between two to three million people worldwide are diagnosed with non-melanoma skin cancers each year.

According to the Skin Cancer Foundation, one in five Americans will develop skin cancer in their lifetime. Current treatments are intensive and costly.

But what if there were another option? An option that was natural and safer.

Cannabis is an ancient medicine with modern implications.

Research indicates cannabis not only alleviates side effects from treating skin cancer like pain and nausea but can also address the root cause of the condition.

Here’s what you need to know about cannabis and skin cancer.

Types of skin cancer
Skin cancer is diagnosed into three main types; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and melanoma. Each form of cancer is named after the type of cells it affects.

Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of skin cancers. Whereas, melanoma is the rarest form of skin cancer. However, melanoma is the most deadly.

Melanoma is responsible for 75% of skin cancer deaths. It also happens to be the second most common cancer for men between the ages of 20-39 and the second most common for women in the same age group. Unfortunately, these numbers are on the rise. Melanoma is currently the fifth most prevalent cancer among men and the sixth among women.

The primary cause for melanoma, along with basal and squamos skin cancers, is linked to damage from ultraviolet rays (UVs). This is because UV rays can cause the DNA in cells to mutate. When cells mutate, they can become cancerous.

Who’s at risk?

Although anyone can develop skin cancer, people with fairer skin are at a higher risk. This is because people who are naturally lighter have less melanin in their skin. Melanin provides protection against UV rays.

What can cannabis do?

Cannabis can help you in more ways than one. Especially if you have legal access to quality products.
Did you know cannabinoid receptors are found in almost every layer of our skin?

In fact, cannabinoid receptors are located throughout the body in cell membrains. Researchers have identified two primary cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2.

CB1 and CB2 are part of what is referred to as the endocannabinoid system, or ECS. Discovered in the late 1980s, the ECS is a vital biological system that impacts nearly every major function in the human body.

How does the ECS work?

The ECS works similarly to a lock and key system. CB1 and CB2 are the locks while cannabinoids like THC along with endogenous cannabinoids (cannabinoids our body produces) are the keys. Present in all vertebra animals, the endocannabinoid system's primary role is to maintain homeostasis.

According to Michael Backes, author of Cannabis Pharmacy, there is evidence of CB1 and CB2 receptors throughout the skin, from the nerves attached to hair follicles and even within the epidermis.

The primary active ingredients in cannabis, THC, and CBD, interact with these receptors.

While still not fully understood, there is ample evidence that suggests cannabis is capable of treating skin cancer due to the cancer-fighting properties of the cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids fight cancer

For maximum efficacy, use cannabis topically as well!
The most aggressive form of skin cancer is melanoma. It accounts for only about 1% of skin cancer cases but a majority of deaths.

Researchers in Europe discovered that the endocannabinoid system plays a vital role in fighting melanoma. A study published in the European Journal of Pharmacology revealed endocannabinoids facilitate apoptotic cell death in cancer cells.

Of those endocannabinoids, Anadaminde (AEA) was the most effective. The researchers from the study concluded:

“Overall, these findings demonstrate that AEA induces cytotoxicity against human melanoma cells in the micromolar range of concentrations through a complex mechanism, which involves COX-2 and LOX-derived product synthesis and CB1 activation.”

Another study in 2015 showed that cannabis triggered cell death in melanoma cells.

During the course of the study, mice infected with melanoma were treated with a combination of THC and CBD. The ratio of the mixture (1:1) was similar to the pharmaceutical drug, Sativex.

After administrating the substance to the mice, the researchers found that THC in conjunction with CBD induced death in melanoma cells.

This study has yet to be replicated with humans. Even so, the research is groundbreaking.

Cannabis inhibits harmful DNA activity

What other medical properties does this plant hold, just waiting to be discovered?
The impact of cannabis as a treatment for skin cancer extends beyond killing cancerous cells. Cannabis may also be key to preventing the onset of skin cancer.

A study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology revealed chemicals in cannabis are capable of stopping harmful DNA in its tracks. Researchers examined the effects of cannabinoids on human skin cells.

During the study, three different types of cannabinoids were tested:

The results from the study indicated CBD was the most effective at stopping unwanted DNA activity. Cannabigerol (CBG) showed some benefit. However, CBD was by far the most effective option.

Why is stopping unwanted DNA activity important when it comes to skin cancer?

Certain genetic factors can influence the growth of skin cell – a key factor in skin disorders, including skin cancer.

The findings from this study indicate cannabis can turn off this harmful DNA activity. The researchers from the study even concluded:

“Phytocannabinoids cannabidiol and cannabigerol are transcriptional repressors that can control cell proliferation and differentiation. This indicates that they (especially cannabidiol) have the potential to be lead compounds for the development of novel therapeutics for skin diseases.”

Our knowledge of cannabis in relation to skin cancer is still developing.

Very few studies have yet to explore this topic in depth.

Meanwhile, there are nearly 9,500 people in the United States alone who are diagnosed with skin cancer every day.

As a schedule 1 drug, researchers have struggled to explore cannabis to its full potential.

But people facing skin cancer today can’t wait. They need options today. Cannabis may not be a cure-all but its therapeutic qualities are beyond evident.

If you’d like to learn more about how cannabis interacts with our body, you can join us for a free live-stream debut of Green Flower's new online class “The Endocannabinoid System 101” on May 25, after which it will be streaming on Green Flower Insider for anytime access.

Click here for details.

Incredible Study Finds Cannabis May Stop Cell Growth In Liver Cancer

Cannabis shows therapeutic promise in four major medical conditions: epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, pain, and cancer. Unfortunately, high-quality human studies on cannabis and cancer are lacking. However, pre-clinical research has been very positive for many forms of cancer, the latest of which is Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Study finds positive results for HCC liver cancer

HCC, a form of liver cancer, is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It is also the most common type of liver cancer.

Viral hepatitis and alcohol abuse both drastically increase the risk of developing HCC. Though, the liver, in general, is highly susceptible to cancers, especially metastatic cancers.

All blood is circulated and cleaned by the organ, which means that the liver is exposed to a wide variety of toxins and harmful debris throughout its entire life.

After early-stage diagnosis, many patients face an expected survival rate of five years. To make matters worse, there aren’t many effective treatments available for this form of cancer.

Some types of targeted therapy are available, however, chemotherapy and radiation remain the most common treatments. There is a desperate need for better, more effective options.

Fortunately, Chinese researchers are looking into alternative approaches for treating the disease.

In 2015, Chinese scientists tested a synthetic cannabinoid called WIN55, 212-2 against HCC tumor cells. The cannabinoid is a man-made model of THC, the primary psychoactive in cannabis. The tumor cells were cultured and treated outside of the body.

How did the cannabinoid work?

When the researchers applied the cannabinoid to the cells, it seemed to stop the growth and division of the tumor cells. The cannabinoid stopped the development of the cancer cells by activating a special cell receptor on the tumor.

It engaged the cannabinoid receptor 2, which is a site that acts sort of like a lock, waiting for specific instructions from a chemical trigger.

Perhaps unsurprisingly, cannabinoid receptors got their name from the cannabis plant. Researchers discovered psychoactive THC in the late 1960s. However, the way THC engages the body wasn’t discovered fro another two decades.

The medical implications of this finding are incredible. Since the original discovery, researchers have found that the CB2 receptor is mostly expressed on immune cells.

As the HCC study suggests, drugs that target the CB2 receptor may mean big breakthroughs in immune-modulating drugs.

The recent study found that the cannabis compound halted tumor development while the cells were in the early stages, while they were preparing to divide.

Their cell line experiment was so successful, that the study authors concluded,

Based on these data, we suggest that cananbinoid receptor agonists should be considered as novel targets for the management of HCC.

For decades, medical scientists and doctors have been searching for better cancer treatments. Though they’ve been on a hunt for years, there are still few options other than chemotherapy and radiation.

The breakthroughs in cannabis research are indeed promising, and the herb sure deserves attention as a potential cancer treatment.
Cannabinoids used in sequence with chemotherapy are a more effective treatment for cancer

New research has confirmed that cannabinoids - the active chemicals in cannabis - are effective in killing leukaemia cells, particularly when used in combination with chemotherapy treatments.

Researchers also found that sequential use of an initial dose of chemotherapy first and then cannabinoids significantly improved overall results against the blood cancer cells. They found that combining existing chemotherapy treatments with cannabinoids had better results than chemotherapy alone, meaning that a similar level of effect could be achieved through using a lower dose of the chemotherapy. If this were translated to humans, this lower dose of chemotherapy would mean that the side-effects of chemotherapy could be lessened.

Dr Wai Liu led the study at St George's, University of London, which was published in the International Journal of Oncology. He said: "We have shown for the first time that the order in which cannabinoids and chemotherapy are used is crucial in determining the overall effectiveness of this treatment."

"These extracts are highly concentrated and purified, so smoking marijuana will not have a similar effect. But cannabinoids are a very exciting prospect in oncology, and studies such as ours serve to establish the best ways that they should be used to maximize a therapeutic effect."

Cannabinoids are the active chemicals in cannabis, known more specifically as phytocannabinoids. When extracted from the plant and purified, they have been shown to possess anticancer properties, especially in certain cancers of the brain.

Researchers looked at cancer cells in the laboratory, trying different combinations of cannabinoids against leukaemia cells. They tested whether existing chemotherapy treatments worked effectively alongside the cannabinoids, and whether using the drugs in a different order had an effect.

A number of clinical studies are underway that are assessing the full potential of cannabinoids in patients with cancer. Researchers say more trials need to be carried out to establish the veracity of the claims.

Cannabinoids used in combination with chemotherapy found to be effective in killing leukemia cells

New research has confirmed that cannabinoids - the active chemicals in cannabis - are effective in killing leukemia cells, particularly when used in combination with chemotherapy treatments.

Researchers also found that sequential use of an initial dose of chemotherapy first and then cannabinoids significantly improved overall results against the blood cancer cells. They found that combining existing chemotherapy treatments with cannabinoids had better results than chemotherapy alone, meaning that a similar level of effect could be achieved through using a lower dose of the chemotherapy.

If this were translated to humans, this lower dose of chemotherapy would mean that the side-effects of chemotherapy could be lessened.

In a study led by Dr. Wai Liu at St George's, University of London, said: "We have shown for the first time that the order in which cannabinoids and chemotherapy are used is crucial in determining the overall effectiveness of this treatment.

"These extracts are highly concentrated and purified, so smoking marijuana will not have a similar effect. But cannabinoids are a very exciting prospect in oncology, and studies such as ours serve to establish the best ways that they should be used to maximize a therapeutic effect."

Cannabinoids are the active chemicals in cannabis, known more specifically as phytocannabinoids. When extracted from the plant and purified, they have been shown to possess anticancer properties, especially in certain cancers of the brain.

Researchers looked at cancer cells in the laboratory, trying different combinations of cannabinoids against leukemia cells. They tested whether existing chemotherapy treatments worked effectively alongside the cannabinoids and whether using the drugs in a different order had an effect.

A number of clinical studies are underway that are assessing the full potential of cannabinoids in patients with cancer. Researchers say more trials need to be carried out to establish the voracity of the claims.


From Chemo to Cannabinoids


Two years ago, my father called for what I thought was our weekly phone chat, full of goofy jokes and laughs. Instead, he told me in an uncharacteristically somber voice that he’d just been diagnosed with aggressive Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.

In a moment when, more than ever before, I should have been there for him, been his rock — I totally lost it.

“Dad, you can’t get sick, you’re Superman.”

“Well,” he sighed. “Looks like my ‘S’ fell off.”

His spontaneous remark helped us manage a little laugh, which, Lord knows, felt better than more tears. We’d already survived watching cancer devour my mom for five long years. I think we both thought that somehow we were immune to death, having endured her devastating departure.

Though obviously we can never escape the Grim Reaper, we did discover three months into my dad’s treatment that he was successfully kicking cancer’s ass to the curb. For another six months, he endured massive doses of chemotherapy, and the chemicals proceeded to do their job in fighting the fight — but not without excruciating headaches, pretty much daily. But Pops refused to let that get him down, and he kept telling his ridiculous jokes and silly puns to keep our spirits up.

When I mentioned his migraines to a dear friend and long-time weed activist, Cynthia Johnston, she beamed (a bit mischievously) when she told me about a Cannabis-infused spray she was now deeply involved in getting into the hands of the public called “Xternal Rub” by Making You Better Brands (MYBB.) She handed me a bottle and said, “Just spray where it hurts and rub it in.” I took it to my father with my fair share of doubt — doubt that he’d even try it, and doubt that it would even work.

I myself had never heard of topical therapy, and Pops certainly wasn’t a Cannabis connoisseur. That said, we weren’t pro or con, either. But because all the over-the-counter remedies had failed to relieve his headaches, he was game to give the spray a try.

When Bud — which is, coincidentally, my dad’s name — took the bottle of cannabis-infused liquid and saturated the top of his head with it, he looked up at me with wonder in his eyes and a huge smile on his face.

“Though I felt pretty silly spraying this stuff on my head, as soon as I applied it, the ache I’d been having for weeks completely disappeared,” he reports now, completely cancer — and headache — free. “I was amazed… and grateful.”

Not knowing exactly what this magic potion was, my dad and I were floored by the results. And while cannabis as medicine has come a long way since he was diagnosed with Lymphoma, this experience for novices like my dad and me (and probably many others out there still) was truly eye opening in that it awakened us to the healing capacities of marijuana. We started learning about the power of pot. Here’s what us newbies found out:

1. What exactly are topicals?

Topicals are Cannabis-infused sprays, lotions, balms, and oils that are absorbed through the skin for localized relief of discomfort and pain. Externally applied, the product triggers a healing in the nerves just below the skin, much like an icy-hot cream treatment. Who knew? Xternal Spray became Bud’s new version of that oldie-but-a-goodie go-to remedy after battling it out on the tennis court: Ben-Gay.

2. What do topicals treat?

Various Cannabis-infused potions can be beneficial for the treatment of sore muscles, arthritis, joint pain, headache, inflammation, backache, chronic pain, stiffness, minor sprains, skin irritation, sports-related pain, musculoskeletal pain, muscle spasms, muscle fatigue, neuropathic and diabetes-related pain. Though these products emerged many years ago, topicals continue to be a mystery to the general public — just like they were for my dad and me.

3. Pops is not a pothead.

Much to our surprise, topicals don’t get you stoned. Because they’re non-psychoactive, topicals are often preferable for patients who want the therapeutic benefits of marijuana without the high associated with joints, bongs, etc.

4. What are the advantages of topicals vs. pain pills?

Topicals are formulated to provide a high local concentration of cannabinoids for targeted relief. They have no known side effects or dosing issues, and are not known to cause ulcers, GI irritation, constipation or addiction. Unlike aspirin, ibuprofen, etc, there has never been a cannabinoid-related death reported.

Making You Better Brands (MYBB) is a San Francisco Bay Area company founded in 2010. MYBB provides affordable, effective, fast-acting cannabinoid therapy for people and their pets. MYBB will continue to share with the world at large the science behind its full-spectrum whole-plant extract, “maximizing the relief and healing benefits of cannabinoids as nature intended.”

5. The remedy road ahead.

My friend, Cynthia Johnston, in addition to representing MYBB full time, continues to evangelize the “miraculous healing properties of our God-given plant,” as a founding member of the Brownie Mary Democratic Club of Los Angeles – an official part of the Democratic Party of California, inspired by San Francisco’s own Cannabis activist, “Brownie Mary” Rathbun, who eased the suffering of hundreds of “her kids” who were dying of AIDS and cancer back in the ’70s and ’80s.

Indeed, medicinal cannabis has come a long way since those dark days. And based on what I learned from this very personal experience, the fact that topicals are still not readily available shows me that we still have a long way to go, fighting the fight.
Can Weed Cure Cancer? Marijuana Helps Fight Glioblastoma Multiforme, One Of The Deadliest Forms Of Brain Cancer

Marijuana might just be a cure for brain cancer, at least that’s what GW Pharmaceuticals in the UK hopes. The company is working on a new treatment using active compounds found in weed, and so far, their results have been promising.

The study looked at a small sample of 21 patients with glioblastoma multiforme, an aggressive brain tumor that typically has a life expectancy of 15 months past diagnosis. In the phase two study, some patients were given a proprietary blend of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), two ingredients found in marijuana. The remaining participants received a placebo.

Patients that had recurrent GBM tumors who were treated with the medication had an 83 percent one-year survival rate. Those in the placebo group had a significantly lower one-year survival rate at 53 percent.

"The findings from this well-designed controlled study suggest that the addition of a combination of THC and CBD to patients on dose-intensive temozolomide produced relevant improvements in survival compared with placebo and this is a good signal of potential efficacy," Professor Susan Short, PhD, and lead study author said in a statement.

While rare, GBM is the most common and deadliest type of malignant brain tumor, according to BrainTumor.org. Each year, about two or 3 new diagnoses are made per 100,000 people in the United States and Europe.

GW’s Chief Executive Officer Justin Gover believes this research is a starting point for the company to further the studies of cannabinoids for health purposes.

"We believe that the signals of efficacy demonstrated in this study further reinforce the potential role of cannabinoids in the field of oncology and provide GW with the prospect of a new and distinct cannabinoid product candidate in the treatment of glioma," Gover said in a statement.

Even though many states are passing laws permitting the use of medical marijuana, it is still a federally illegal substance, which limits research. Currently, cannabis is not approved by the FDA as a legitimate treatment for cancer.
This is an older article but a good one. HepC used to be treated with Interferon, which is a drug used to treat melanoma, and Ribivirin. They called it 'treatment' rather than calling it chemo and I often wondered if it was because of the stigma of the disease since they call it chemo for skin cancer. Anyway.... cannabis helped me manage the symptoms of the HepC 'treatment' and I can honestly say that I don't know that I could have completed the program without it. My side effects were awful.



Canisters of medical marijuana and a price list for the marijuana products is seen inside Highland Health medical dispensary and wellness center in Denver, Colorado, U.S., on Wednesday, Nov. 4, 2009. A growing number of cancer patients and oncologists view marijuana as a viable alternative for managing the negative effects, such as nausea, bone pain, anxiety, and depression, of both chemotherapy and cancer itself.

After a successful surgery to remove a cancer-ridden section of Jeff Moroso’s large intestine in the spring of 2013, the oncologist sat down with his patient to prepare him for what would come next: 12 rounds of punishing chemotherapy, once every two weeks for six months—standard practice for the treatment of colon cancer.

Moroso’s oncologist spent most of that appointment writing prescriptions for medications he said would minimize the debilitating side effects of chemotherapy. He gave Moroso scripts for ondansetron (Zofran) and prochlorperazine (Compazine) for nausea, and lorazepam (Ativan) for anxiety and insomnia. Because the nausea drugs are known to cause gastrointestinal problems and headaches, he also recommended three over-the-counter medications for constipation and one for diarrhea, as well as ibuprofen for pain. In total, he instructed Moroso to take more than a dozen prescription and nonprescription drugs and supplements.

Moroso says the first three rounds of treatment were more awful than he could have ever imagined. After chemotherapy, he felt so ill and weak that he could barely stand up, and it took him days to rebound. And the prescription drugs just made him feel worse. “I felt real sick, incapable of doing anything except for lying there and trying to hang on,” says Moroso, who is 70 and now cancer-free.

Moroso couldn’t afford to lose days of work while he was doing his chemo. He’d heard from friends and read in the paper that cannabis can help a patient through chemotherapy, so he got a letter from his oncologist that allowed him to obtain medical marijuana. (He chose coffee beans infused with 5 milligrams of cannabis, a low dose that he took when he felt he had to.) By the seventh round of chemotherapy, Moroso had dumped his prescription pills. “I would get blasted on the stuff and be happy as a clam, no problems,” he says.

A growing number of cancer patients and oncologists view the drug as a viable alternative for managing chemotherapy’s effects, as well as some of the physical and emotional health consequences of cancer, such as bone pain, anxiety and depression. State legislatures are following suit; medical cannabis is legal in 23 states and the District of Columbia, and more than a dozen other states allow some patients access to certain potency levels of the drug if a physician documents that it’s medically necessary, or if the sick person has exhausted other options. A large number of these patients have cancer, and many who gain access to medical marijuana report that it works.

“A day doesn’t go by where I don’t see a cancer patient who has nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, pain, depression and insomnia,” says Dr. Donald Abrams, chief of hematology-oncology at San Francisco General Hospital and a professor of clinical medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. Marijuana, he says, “is the only anti-nausea medicine that increases appetite.”

It also helps patients sleep and elevates their mood—no easy feat when someone is facing a life-threatening illness. “I could write six different prescriptions, all of which may interact with each other or the chemotherapy that the patient has been prescribed. Or I could just recommend trying one medicine,” Abrams says.

were the strongest supporters: 82 percent of oncologists agreed that cannabis should be offered as a treatment option.

Dr. Benjamin Kligler, associate professor of family and social medicine at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, says there has been enough research to prove that at a bare minimum cannabis won’t actually harm a person. In addition, “given what we've seen anecdotally in practice I think there's no reason we shouldn't see more integration of cannabis in the long run as a strategy,” he says. “We have this extremely safe, extremely useful medicine that could potentially benefits a huge population.”

Some years ago, Dr. Gil Bar-Sela, director of the integrated oncology and palliative care unit at the Rambam Health Care Campus in Haifa, Israel conducted two rounds of phone interviews with 131 cancer patients who used cannabis while in chemotherapy; just less than 4 percent of participants reported that they experienced a worsening of symptoms when they started using cannabis and the majority said it helped, according to the resulting paper published, in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine in 2013.

analyzed the findings of 79 studies on cannabinoids for a variety of indications, including nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy, appetite stimulation for patients with HIV/AIDS, chronic pain and multiple sclerosis, among other conditions. This review, which accounted for 6,462 patients, found most who used cannabinoids reported improvements to symptoms compared with patients in placebo groups. However, the researchers say these improvements were not statistically significant. The analysis also indicated that cannabinoids had limited impact on symptoms of nausea and vomiting, and a number of patients reported adverse effects from the drug, including dizziness, disorientation, confusion and hallucinations.

Perhaps the biggest challenge in understanding marijuana stems from the fact that it is not a bespoke drug designed to act in a specific way on the body — it's a complex plant that appears to provide a wealth of health benefits. The cannabis sativa plant contains more than 85 cannabinoids, a variety of chemical compounds that also exist in the body. Just as opioid pills activate the opioid receptors (and limit a person’s perception of pain), cannabinoids in marijuana activate the cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, including in the brain, liver and immune system.

study on nabiximols for the treatment of cancer-related pain produced disappointing results. However, the GW Pharmaceutical Company, the maker of Sativex, is pushing through with further trials to evaluate the drug as a potential adjunctive therapy for opioids for pain management in patients with advanced cancer.

But how other cannabinoids work together is still much of mystery, says Dr. David Casarett, a professor of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine and the author of Stoned: A Doctor’s Case for Medical Marijuana. This means researchers aren’t entirely sure why the plant could help people manage symptoms like nausea and pain. “Marijuana is not as much of a science as it should be,” he says.

In large part, says Casarett, that’s because medical marijuana has proved to be most effective in palliative care, the medical specialty that focuses on managing symptoms of disease and improving a patient’s quality of life—and there is very little funding for palliative care in this country. “That's changing slowly,” he says, “but it's still much easier to get funding to test disease-modifying treatments than it is to develop and test palliative therapies, including cannabis.”

We are starting to get some idea of the palliative power of cannabis, Abrams says. “The reason we think we have this whole pathway of the receptors and the endocannabinoids is to get us to forget things, and particularly to get us to forget pain,” he says. In addition, cannabinoids relieve symptoms of nausea because that’s also a physiological reaction stemming from the central nervous system.

With the public perception of marijuana changing rapidly, barriers to studying the plant’s medicinal potential are beginning to fall. Earlier this spring, for example, the Obama administration announced it would remove some of the restrictions on medical marijuana research. In the meantime, though, it is clear that marijuana has a unique and important role to play in cancer care.

“People are realizing that even when patients do well in terms of survival, there’s a lot of suffering along the way that needs to be addressed,” says Casarett. “For many patients, [marijuana] is an opportunity to take control over their disease and symptom management when they can't get the relief they need from the health care system.”

This article is one in a series from Newsweek 's 2015 Cancer issue, exploring challenges and innovations in cancer treatment and research. The complete issue is available online and at newsstands.

By Catherine Goldberg
August 24, 2017

One of the things that attracted me most to the cannabis industry were the stories of cancer patients who used cannabinoids to help in the treatment of their disease. As an entrepreneur in the cannabis sector, I always try to stay up-to-date on the latest developments in medical marijuana; however, the product that’s most recently peaked my interest has been around for a long time—Rick Simpson Oil (RSO).

With the aid of RSO, along with lifestyle changes and an accompanying diet, many cancer patients, some of whom are now in remission, are living a much healthier life. It has been long established that weed can be a vital weapon in the fight against cancer, but I wanted to understand what makes it so effective.

Cannabis’ well-documented anti-inflammatory properties may play an important role. You might not have learned about this in school, but every human cell contains an endocannabinoid receptor, so the anti-inflammatory benefits of cannabinoid can be felt throughout the body.

This becomes relevant as the link between chronic inflammation and cancer becomes stronger and stronger. An article from the Yale Journal of Biology states that there is a correlation between inflammation and the progression of cancer cells. Many people with whom I spoke credited the powerful anti-inflammatory properties of RSO, alongside a healthier diet, as one of the most important steps in their recovery.

RSO, named after its eccentric creator Rick Simpson, is a potent extract made from one pound of good plant material and food grade alcohol. Simpson first came up with the recipe in his kitchen with little more than a rice cooker.

Since then, he has educated thousands of people via his website, while living in hiding. Some of his claims are “out there,” to say the least, but the anti-inflammatory benefits of RSO are hard to deny.

While there haven’t been any specific studies on RSO due to the USA’s draconian laws regulating medical marijuana, anecdotally, it has helped countless people.

Frank Brown, a Wharton Business School grad and entrepreneur, found his life’s calling when he launched the Emerald Room, a Pre-ICO/Prop. D compliant boutique dispensary in Los Angeles, which specializes in the highest quality of organic, medicinal Rick Simpson Oils to effectively benefit his patients battling cancer, as well as the side effects of chemotherapy and anxiety. Brown has facilitated the treatment of 300 patients using Rick Simpson’s method of extraction and protocol for dosage.

He recommends that his patients work up to taking a gram of RSO a day over the course of 90 days, combined with a strict vegan diet, which excludes sugar as well. To be clear, Frank’s method is not meant to be a replacement for traditional therapies.

To give you a little perspective on Frank’s dosage recommendation, a standard edible brownie contains 100 mg of THC. That’s 10 individual servings by Colorado standards. One gram of RSO has over 600 mg of THC. That’s a lot by anyone’s standards.

When an individual ingests this amount of cannabis, they will be incapacitated and need a great deal of help doing simple tasks, so it is important that they have assistance during this period. Out of the 300 people Frank has helped, many see improvements to their quality of life, and 100 are currently living cancer-free.

Jay Moon, owner of Village Flora Collective, explained inflammation to me by saying, “the body is on fire, and it’s trying to fight this fire. Eating dairy, sugar and gluten is adding gasoline to it.”

Many cancer patients feel like their disease has stolen their autonomy from them; however, they can control their attitude and what they eat. The diet that Frank recommends with the help of his nutritionist and partner, Miranda Graczyk, not only helps fight inflammation, but gives his patients back a much needed sense of control.

Among the things that can help cancer patients exert control over their lives is mindfulness meditation, which has been linked to a decrease in depression, anxiety and pain. A short walk outside is proven to alleviate depression. For those who are unable to move, a massage with cannabis-infused massage oil is a perfect way to treat oneself.

It is unclear why the treatment works for some and not others.

Some have followed the diet perfectly and died, while one person, whose cancer is now in remission, ate hotdogs and drank Coke on a routine basis. The patients that don’t make it are always on Frank’s mind. He showed me one video of a dying mother and daughter sitting around eating pie and laughing their asses off.

Regardless of RSO’s efficacy in cancer treatment, cannabis allows those in great pain to die in dignity, with moments of joy near the end. Everyone knows someone who has cancer, and the only way cannabis can help a great number of people is if we start to discuss it out in the open.

Next time the conversation comes up, maybe consider suggesting Rick Simpson Oil to someone who could be living in less pain.
Apoptosis: What is it and what is the role of cannabinoids?

How Cannabis Causes Cancer Cells to Die
By now you have probably heard a story or two about how medical cannabis helped heal cancer. This may have even been your experience or the experience of a loved one. Cannabis has proven to be effective against cancer in many ways, from reinforcing the endocannabinoid system to boosting the immune system and cutting inflammation.

The most impressive way that medical cannabis can affect cancer cells, however, is through its ability to be a catalyst for “programmed cell death.” This process is called apoptosisand it is the most effective way that cannabis and other natural substances can turn cancer around for good.

What is Apoptosis?
Apoptosis is a process that happens to all healthy cells. Just like all living beings, cells are meant to be born, live their life and then expire. Healthy cells die in two ways: through necrosis and through apoptosis. In necrosis, a cell is damaged by an external force such as an injury, a poison, an infection or a drastic cutting off of blood supply. When necrosis happens, it causes much strain on the body through accompanying inflammatory responses.


Apoptosis, on the other hand, can be thought of as the “clean” means of cell death. Between 50 and 70 billion cells in your body die each day as a result of apoptosis– and this is a good thing. The process of apoptosis leads to cell regeneration, cellular morphogenesis, the maintenance of healthy tissue and the elimination of harmful cells.

Apoptosis is also predictable and relies on patterned mechanisms within the cell’s DNA that causes it to “commit suicide” when its time has come.

Cannabis Affects Cancer Apoptosis in Many Ways
While healthy cells succumb to apoptosis by the billions every day, cancer cells are a whole other story. What makes cancer so unique (and scary) is that the mechanisms of apoptosis have mutated and have basically been turned off in cancer cells. Because of this, malignant cells do not die. Instead, they continue to multiply and spread indefinitely.

There are dozens of natural substances out there that have the ability to effect apoptosis in cancer cells. Phytonutrients such as curcumin in turmeric, sulphoraphane in broccoli sprouts and oleocanthal in olive oil are just three well-studied examples.


Cannabis also has the ability to effect cancer cell apoptosis. As it turns out, cannabis has several substances and mechanisms within it that have the ability to turn apoptosis “back on” in cancer cells. Some of the cancer-fighting substances in cannabis include powerful terpenes, polyphenols and antioxidants.

Let’s take a look at the most researched ways in which cannabis can be a catalyst for cancer cell death: through the cannabinoids CBD and THC.

How CBD Affects Programmed Cancer Cell Death
CBD (or Cannabidiol, the non-psychoactive component of cannabis) is a powerful phytonutrient and anti-oxidant. It is also considered to be a powerful anti-cancer agent and has demonstrated apoptotic activity on a variety of cancers:

-A very recent March 2016 Israeli study found that while both TCH and CBD catalyzed cancer cell death in childhood neuroblastomas (brain cancers), CBD was actually more effective at inducing apoptosis through morphological changes within the cell. It was especially seen to be a catalyst for the production of healthy caspases within cells. Caspases are enzymes that play a major role in controlling inflammation and in sparking apoptosis.

-A 2013 Italian study found that CBD in particular induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in part because it helped to elevate levels of a family of substances called “reactive oxygen species.”

As the name implies, “reactive oxygen species” contain high levels of oxygen. Cancer cells cannot live in the presence of oxygen and must stay within anaerobic environments in order to survive. The presence of substances such as peroxides, superoxides and hydroxyls, which CBD seems to elevate, can quickly lead to cancer cell death.

Interestingly, the Italian researchers also discovered that certain kinds of prostate cancer cells that have the ability to turn into mutated neuroendocrine-like cells were more sensitive to CBD-induced apoptosis. This may be further proof of the way in which the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoids work on all systems and levels of the body for healing – from brain neurons to reproductive processes.

Research is also discovering how CBD and CBDA may affect the spread of cancer tumors on the genetic level. In a Japanese study, CBDA alone stopped the spread of aggressive breast cancer by slowing down the mechanisms by which cancer cells travel through the body.

CBD has shown the same responsiveness in cancers of the lung, thyroid, cervix, liver and brain as well. Although effecting the means of cancer cell travel is not an apoptotic activity, it does demonstrate how cannabis is able to target the ways in which cancer cells survive and spread at every apparent level and stage of development.

How THC Kills Cancer Cells
THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol) often works in conjunction with CBD to activate and enhance CBD’s effectiveness at healing through the endocannabinoid system. The same is true for its ability to aid CBD in instigating apoptosis.

The most impressive example of how THC activates cancer cell death was discovered by Dr. Christina Sanchez of Compultense University in Madrid, Spain. Dr. Sanchez has dedicated her professional life to advancing the understanding of how cannabinoids work to not only enhance such biological functions as appetite, motor function and reproduction but also how it works against cancer. She and her research team spent a decade focusing on this process, adding new insights into how THC works to instigate apoptosis, or cancer cell death.

Dr. Sanchez and her team first treated brain tumor cells with cannabinoids in in vitro studies. They found that THC alone was killing the cancer cells. They then decided to analyze this same process in animal models in both brain and breast tumors. The tests again demonstrated the same results.

“Cells can die in different ways,” Dr. Sanchez explained in a 2014 interview with the medical cannabis news show Cannabis Planet. “…and after cannabinoid treatment, (cancer cells) were dying in the clean way. They were committing suicide which is something that you really want…”

Dr. Sanchez and her team discovered that THC had the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. She also discovered that THC in cannabis directly targets cancer cells yet leaves healthy cells alone.

“One of the advantages of cannabinoid-based medicines would be that they target specifically tumor cells,” continues Dr. Sanchez. “They don’t have any toxic effect on normal non-tumoral cells. This is an advantage with respect to standard chemotherapy, that targets basically everything.”

CBD, THC and Phytonutrients in Cannabis Work Together to Fight Cancer
Although science has pretty much confirmed that both CBD and THC individually can induce apoptosis, the most impressive effects occur when the hundreds of phytonutrients present in a single cannabis plant work synergistically against cancer tumor formation and spread. Besides CBD and THC, cannabis also contains phytonutrients called terpenes, many of which have been proven in research studies to effect cancer cell death. Some terpenes that have this ability are limonene, linalool ,myrcene and pinene.

Cannabis contains too many phytonutrients to name that may contribute to its overall effect at inducing cancer cell apoptosis. Although science has learned a lot about this process, it still has a long way to go in understanding all the mechanisms at play. One thing is for sure, however. More and more research is pointing to cannabis’ ability to affect apoptosis in dozens of cancer types, and to possibly even reverse the progression of cancer tumors at many different stages of their development.
Marijuana Cuts Lung Cancer Tumor Growth In Half, Study Shows

Date : April 17, 2007
American Association for Cancer Research

The active ingredient in marijuana cuts tumor growth in common lung cancer in half and significantly reduces the ability of the cancer to spread, say researchers at Harvard University who tested the chemical in both lab and mouse studies.

They say this is the first set of experiments to show that the compound, Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), inhibits EGF-induced growth and migration in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressing non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. Lung cancers that over-express EGFR are usually highly aggressive and resistant to chemotherapy.

THC that targets cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 is similar in function to endocannabinoids, which are cannabinoids that are naturally produced in the body and activate these receptors. The researchers suggest that THC or other designer agents that activate these receptors might be used in a targeted fashion to treat lung cancer.

"The beauty of this study is that we are showing that a substance of abuse, if used prudently, may offer a new road to therapy against lung cancer," said Anju Preet, Ph.D., a researcher in the Division of Experimental Medicine.

Acting through cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, endocannabinoids (as well as THC) are thought to play a role in variety of biological functions, including pain and anxiety control, and inflammation. Although a medical derivative of THC, known as Marinol, has been approved for use as an appetite stimulant for cancer patients, and a small number of U.S. states allow use of medical marijuana to treat the same side effect, few studies have shown that THC might have anti-tumor activity, Preet says. The only clinical trial testing THC as a treatment against cancer growth was a recently completed British pilot study in human glioblastoma.

In the present study, the researchers first demonstrated that two different lung cancer cell lines as well as patient lung tumor samples express CB1 and CB2, and that non-toxic doses of THC inhibited growth and spread in the cell lines. "When the cells are pretreated with THC, they have less EGFR stimulated invasion as measured by various in-vitro assays," Preet said.

Then, for three weeks, researchers injected standard doses of THC into mice that had been implanted with human lung cancer cells, and found that tumors were reduced in size and weight by about 50 percent in treated animals compared to a control group. There was also about a 60 percent reduction in cancer lesions on the lungs in these mice as well as a significant reduction in protein markers associated with cancer progression, Preet says.

Although the researchers do not know why THC inhibits tumor growth, they say the substance could be activating molecules that arrest the cell cycle. They speculate that THC may also interfere with angiogenesis and vascularization, which promotes cancer growth.

Preet says much work is needed to clarify the pathway by which THC functions, and cautions that some animal studies have shown that THC can stimulate some cancers. "THC offers some promise, but we have a long way to go before we know what its potential is," she said.

It's really no mystery why the feds are stalling on this. Big Pharma and many industries (read political backers) are breathing down their necks because this plant could, potentially, put them out of business. Unless they can figure out a way to control it and be the ones who profit from it.......

Study shows non-hallucinogenic cannabinoids are effective anti-cancer drugs

Posted on June 5, 2017

“New research has shown that the non-hallucinogenic components of cannabis could act as effective anti-cancer agents. The anti-cancer properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary hallucinogenic component of cannabis, has been recognised for many years, but research into similar cannabis-derived compounds, known as cannabinoids, has been limited.

The study was carried out by a team at St George’s, University of London. It has been published in the journal Anticancer Research. The team, led by Dr Wai Liu and colleagues carried out laboratory investigations using a number of cannabinoids, either alone or in combination with each other, to measure their anti-cancer actions in relation to leukaemia.

Of six cannabinoids studied, each demonstrated anti-cancer properties as effective as those seen in THC. Importantly, they had an increased effect on cancer cells when combined with each other.

Dr Liu said: “This study is a critical step in unpicking the mysteries of cannabis as a source of medicine. The cannabinoids examined have minimal, if any, hallucinogenic side effects, and their properties as anti-cancer agents are promising.

“These agents are able to interfere with the development of cancerous cells, stopping them in their tracks and preventing them from growing. In some cases, by using specific dosage patterns, they can destroy cancer cells on their own.

“Used in combination with existing treatment, we could discover some highly effective strategies for tackling cancer. Significantly, these compounds are inexpensive to produce and making better use of their unique properties could result in much more cost effective anti-cancer drugs in future.”

The study examined two forms of cannabidiol (CBD), two forms of cannabigerol (CBG) and two forms of cannabigevarin (CBGV). These represent the most common cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant apart from THC.” https://www.sgul.ac.uk/alumni/magaz...-cannabinoids-are-effective-anti-cancer-drugs

“Enhancing the Activity of Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids In Vitro Through Modifications to Drug Combinations and Treatment Schedules” http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/33/10/4373.abstract
“Non-hallucinogenic cannabinoids are effective anti-cancer drugs” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131014094105.htm

“Cannabinoids used in sequence with chemotherapy are a more effective treatment for cancer. New research has confirmed that cannabinoids – the active chemicals in cannabis – are effective in killing leukaemia cells, particularly when used in combination with chemotherapy treatments.” https://www.sgul.ac.uk/news/news-ar...apy-are-a-more-effective-treatment-for-cancer
“Anticancer effects of phytocannabinoids used with chemotherapy in leukaemia cells can be improved by altering the sequence of their administration.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28560402
Zelda Therapeutics reports positive results in breast cancer study using cannabinoids
Small Caps - June 5, 2017

Zelda Therapeutics (ASX: ZLD) has reported positive results from its ongoing pre-clinical research into the use of cannabinoids as anti-cancer agents.

Key Highlights:

  • Follows on from initial results announced in November 2016 which showed specific formulations of THC-rich oil was significantly more potent at reducing HER2+ breast tumour growth than pure THC and equally as potent as Lapatanib in reducing tumour growth in mice hosting HER2+ human tumours.
  • Latest results from a series of in vitro studies confirms statistically significant anti-cancer effect across a range of different breast cancer cell lines using both THC-rich and CBD-rich oils.
  • These results demonstrate the potential for cannabinoid-based therapies to be therapeutically beneficial in a broad spectrum of breast cancer types including hormone receptor positive, HER2+ and Triple Negative cancer types.
  • Conducted by world leading cannabis cancer researchers at Complutense University of Madrid, the results show THC-rich oil had significantly greater anti-cancer effect than pure synthetic THC.
  • Studies are ongoing with further data expected in coming months from additional in vitro and in vivo studies currently underway.
  • Ability to incorporate cannabinoids into treatment regimes provides new therapeutic opportunities.
These latest results expand and build upon the initial proof of concept results announced in November 2016.

These latest experiments expanded the number of cancer cell lines being tested to include:

  • Hormone Receptor Positive (ER+/PR+) – typically treated with surgery and chemotherapy agents such as tamoxifen although resistance can build to standard drugs.
  • HER2+ – typically treated with antibody drugs such as Herceptin with relatively high success rates.
  • Triple Negative – aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options.
These latest experiments tested THC-rich and CBD-rich extracts supplied by Zelda’s partner Aunt Zelda’s (together “Zelda”) against a number of cell lines and demonstrated that a statistically significant anti-cancer effect was produced across multiple cell lines and across all three cancer sub-types as described above.

In particular, the Zelda THC-rich formulation showed significantly greater anti-cancer effect than pure synthetic THC suggesting that full extracts have greater efficacy than pure compounds. This effect was consistent across all cancer sub-types suggesting a novel mechanism of action that could form the basis for the development for future therapies.

These results were generated by world leading cannabis cancer researchers at Complutense University of Madrid, led by Professor Cristina Sánchez and Professor Manuel Guzmán.

The in vitro study was carried out in at least two different cell lines of each of the three cancer sub-types described above and measured cancer cell viability compared to controls.


The positive results provide support to continue the study of Zelda formulations as anti-cancer therapeutics in their own right or in combination with current chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimes. A series of follow-on in vitro studies are in progress expanding the study of CBD-rich extracts alone and in combination with THC-rich extracts to determine if there is a synergistic effect.

In addition, an expanded in vivo/animal study is underway examining the anti-cancer effect of Zelda’s extracts compared to pure THC and pure CBD as well as certain chemotherapy agents against HER2+ and Triple Negative human tumours hosted in rodents (orthotopic tumours). Initial results of these studies are expected in 3Q2017.

Triple Negative breast cancers, constitute approximately 15% of breast cancers and are the most aggressive type. These cancer growths do not have any of the receptors commonly found in breast cancer cells, and as such common treatments like hormone therapy and drugs that target the necessary receptors, are ineffective. With chemotherapy, radiation and surgery being the only options, there is significant market demand for new treatments to increase survival rates.

Professors Sánchez and Guzmán are acknowledged as world leaders in studying the anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids and have published pioneering papers in prestigious scientific journals detailing specific mechanisms of action of cannabinoids on certain cell pathways. Both researchers sit on the Zelda Medical Advisory Board and provide significant guidance in terms of pre-clinical research focus.

The study forms part of a multi-year work programme, funded by Zelda, at the Complutense University focused specifically on gaining a better understanding of the efficacy of certain whole-plant extracts known to have biological activity in humans.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in Australian women. The prevalence of breast cancer in Australia alone is increasing and forecast to reach 47 diagnosis per day by 2020. On a global scale the incidence of the disease is also significant.

Zelda Therapeutics is bringing together leaders in the field to develop a natural cannabis based therapy which has the potential to provide patients with more comfort and increase survival rates.

Zelda’s focus is to generate data packs in a form typically expected by the bio-pharmaceutical industry.

The ultimate aim is to licence this intellectual property to a major group better resourced to progress into formal human clinical trials in the area of cancer therapy.

Commenting on the study results, Executive Chairman Harry Karelis stated:

“We are very excited by the continued positive data being generated by our studies. We continue to develop our knowledge in this important clinical area and believe there is growing evidence to consider cannabinoids as part of the future treatment regimes for breast cancer particularly for Triple Negative tumours that currently have limited treatment options. There is a long way to go before this approach reaches formal human clinical trials but importantly, this data supports the anecdotal experiences already seen in patients in California.”

Professor Cristina Sánchez stated:

“These new results are very exciting and provides additional evidence that strongly points in favour of using whole-plant extracts over single cannabinoid molecules. We look forward to completing our next round of studies in coming months.”

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